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Qaale mi pare totalmente bor- gognoDO. Dici che le cose non sono gia andate bene quanto lay et gli altri ehe persnaseno a Madama passare li monti. Et che tandem sanza alchuno dubio esso et Madama si abboccarano con Sua Haesta. Del suo andare a Besanzono o altrove per gnarirsi dici che non, ma peguira par le bandiere.

De vero amore verso la S. Demom chel si fa certa strettissima praticha per la qoale si vederano cose grandissime anzi il fine del anno présente. Li quali non possendo dare sicnrta qua, la da- gano a Milaoo o nel paese del Marchese di Monferrato. Gelsitudinis Yestre Fimai, De? Voir le n" clxxxvi, note G ci-devant. Lugano, le 1" juin Nouvelles informations sur les mouvements des Suisses.

Âla quale eontiDue me aricomando. El Lugano primo Jany hora S3'. Le duc de Bourgogne n'a point changé ses cantonnements depuis qu'il est parti de Lausanne pour aller camper à Morrens. Cum siffiUo, ' Le ànc de Bourgogne, campé à Morrms depuis le 27 mai, y de- meura jusqu'au mardi, 4 juin, après-diner.

Ibam-Pierrb Panigarola an duc de Milan. Oamp du due de Boorgogne à Hormif , 4 juin Il se dit offensé et provoqué par les Suisses, et mar- chera contre eux avec un tel oidre et une telle prudence que la victoire lui restera. Le duc a répondu: A queste tiite cose risponde riogratiare la S. Intendere omnino avcrc Fe- reta', et quelle he suo e li specta, e morire in limpresa cba ipso vivente vedersi occuparsi il suo, et si fosse certa potere essere Impcratore senza la baiaglia, et vendicare ihoQore sao, reaontiaria a tal dignita per venire ala bata- glia.

Ëssere deliberata ogni modo arere a fare conloro, et cognoscere bene 11 mette U stato, la vîta et tato a periculo. Si 7 a trovare ûno che reda soo avaQtagio, et faciUneoto potra essere ritomaio perche, como e dicto, si non eoQ avanta- gio non réunira aie mane. Replicai corto la S. Soa doTere pensare bene di mettere tanto ad ono traeto in pericnio et potere di la foilnna, et non solo li mette?

Si vince con graode. Maesta Soa sotto pona di bainlt Impériale", che non si po dire piu, perche gia piu di ei prothonotario Esler scrisse la , si facesse in modospera fra set septlmane o doi mesi la Maesta Soa sara in puncto a romperli la gaerra, la quale sono de- liberati proseguire, et disfarii di radice, in modo linsolentia esnperbia loro sia etema memoria, et a qaesto como e dicto dice la Maesta Soa e obligata per spetial promessa. Me rico- maodo sempre a V. Knébd, IHarium, L c. Minutes de la correspondance A,foUo , aux archives de Berne.

Baltazar, marchand bâiois, établi à Côme; croit savoir que l'armée bourguignonne s'est avancée jusqu'aux portes de Fribourg lisez Mo- ral , où le dne avait noué des intelligences, mais que l'inlrigue ayant été découverte à tempe, 12 citoyens ont été décapités, etc. Ceteram Baldesare da Basilea me ha dicto, pur questo non e ancora ben ccrto cbel campo de!

Comi 6 JuDy U Petrasauta an duc de Milan. Tarin, 6 juin Mais à l'heure qu'il est elles se trouvent dans le plus grand dénue- ment: Glie sono anche squadrette maie a cavailo, maie armati, maie vi? Ita che io somma gli pare poche genti utile, et de farae pocbo coocepto. Ve sono bene arcierï assay ; ma tali et qnali et cbiormaglia. Et cbe moUi di qoelli del paese del Duca di Borgogna, maxime quelli del contato di Geidref quali erano venuti assay bene in ordine, maxime con li pelti armati, sono adesso riducli a tanta cxtremitate che hanno venduto ii pettnrnii et vannn iiietjdicando per amore di Dio, perche ne hanno ilenari, ne da vivere, et non possono partire.

E an- che per li cativi iraltameoti pochi Italiani ci rimarrebbero quando se ne potessero venire via sicaramente. Giurami la fede sua che may il Re con il suo piu perforzo mette insieme pocbo pin che circa lOm cavalli utili de genti darme.

Quaiiuij io gli racontay quasi a lionio per homo al me- glio che puoti il numéro d" li soldait et cavalli utili dr la S. Et cbe la S. Da Torino 6 Giugno Dans ce ras le duc se déciderait i transporter son camp à une liene et demie ou deux lieues plus en avant, pour voir ce que les enoemis feront, etc.

Ex Gastris sexto Junii FirmaU , Senrus J. Les SuisseR qui s'étnient emparés fie Payemc dans la campagne d'automne de l'année précédente, avaient abandonné la place pendant que le duc de Bourgogne était campé à Lansanne. Jean Rûnco [commissaire de Pallanza] à J. Il mande que peu Je jours ;iu[i;ir;ivant le capitaine Troyto, s'étanl avancé du cùlé des Suisses à la lèle d'une colonne de gendarmerie bourguignonne, a rompu et dispersé un rassemblement de six. Magnifiée et exhimie doctor ac strenue miles major plu- rimum honorande.

Dandomi aviso ad V. Ceterum dicti Alamani sono proferti ad predicto duca dargli octoginla m. Qnilli de Valexio stano ali passi e? Offerischo ali piaceri de V. Magnifico et eximio doctori ac strenuo militi domino Johanni Augustino di Vi- comercato ducali consiliario et comis- sario etc. Gex, 8 juin Plusieurs seigoenin lutpolilains, venaot du eamp du duc de Bourgo- gne, sftvoir: Essi Barone et Antonello cum Pallomaro aiidarono a Gorte.

Credo pur clie in qualche cosa parlasseno coatra conscientia. Questa matina ho in- teso che sonno venuti per condare queste robbe che sonno qoa in Borgogna. De qaello seguira avisaro. Et si sara avisato de cosa alcuna faro fare tutte le provisione possibile. Ex villa Gay die 8 junij Per postas; cito, cito, cito. Panigàrola au duc de Milak. Du camp en avant de Lucens, 9 juin Les troupes d'ordonnance avnienl louché la veille un secojid mois de solde.

Le gouverneur de Nice, Antoine d'Orlier, est venu résider au camp. Dans la matinée du 8 juin, on vint dire au duc que les Suisses, rassemblés à deux lieues de là, faisaient mine de vouloir attaquer la camp. Avenches à une lieue et demie du camp. Comme par suite de ces nouvelles on s'attend à une bataille pour. Trois cents lances et une partie des gens de neds qui tenaient gar- nison daus les lieux environnants, ont rejoint l'armée au camp de Mbniet dans la journée du 8 juin.

Non heri laltro scrissi ad V. Gbi dice te- gnira, chi dice noD, ma per qaello si sente, si crede Svi- ceri forano dimostratlone di teoerlo, perche e passo mtono a FilibofuOj e se intende che si amassano io camino.

La paga seconda e sldU data ali soldati di lordinanza in que- sto loco. Heri passato, prima di mezo di veae nova che li Suicerj erano vicinj a doe ieghe et venivano assaltare il campo. Soa gli armo, deinde fece ussîre dil campo tuti li colo- neli per ordine in bataglia et lartiglia sic , e guadagno il monte, dore stando fo certificato, li inimici erano andati a campo cirea 6" ad ATanchia' qui ricino a una legha e meza, per il che considerato Ihora tarda ritomo in campo, e se hora nanzi di parte per andar a socorere dicto loco 0 trovarh li intorno, piima che piu ingrossano, perche si e dicto non se li sono firmati ; como succédera rinforzo V.

Idio ne tene la bUanza. Si la bataglia sara de proximo restera ftno sia facta. Si minus si ne vegnira dala S. In campo heri zonsero lanze e certi fanti de quelli de questo S. Ouid iiet uiterius, avisaro la V. QuidmoH, Witoirt de Sanoie, t I p. Jacqueline était srenr rtu connétable de St- Paul, décapité à Paris à la tin de l'année précédente iAnsdmCfgr.

Il est à remarquer que, depuis que le duc Charles avait levé sou camp de Lanaanne pour marcher mt Morat, ce prince mattcenrra de manière à rester constamment en communication avec la Bourgogne par les routes qui d'Yverdon tendent à IlMerreM, à SàoBoifer et à MoMiO, où l'armée campa successivement. Du camp de Montet 9 juin Dans cet inatant toute Tannée lève le camp pour aller mellre le aiége devant la ville de Mont.

Intendendo laltro heri che lî inimici erano qui presso, et che si credeva qaeUo di trovargli, domando lîcentia, excusandosi non potere stare e cosi iebe et si ne ando; el che li e stato atribuito a gran vilta et mancamento di animo et di honore. Ex Gastris 9 Junii Le seigneur de Rivarolo, maître d'hôtel de ia duchesse de Savoie, revenu la veille au soir du camp du duc de Bourgogne, a apporté la noovelle que dans la journée du samedi 8 juin l'arniée a éi6 sur la point d'en venir aux mains avec les Suisses, qui s'étaient montrés dans le voisinage au nombre de 6 ou 7 mille hommes.

Le seigneur de Atmif'olo sjoute uo le duc s'apprêtait è lever le camp, le jour suivant, pour se porter à Moral, ville peu considérable mais forte, qui appartient au romlo de Ronioiil ; — les Allemands y ont laissé une garnison d'environ 1,.

Messire Philibert deCompey, seigneur de La-Chapelle, se rend à l'armée pour prendre pan au combat. Gumli quali Honsignore de Romont aodava per appontarle insiema, e subblto ne aviso prefato MoDsignore de Borgogna, et Monsigiiur de la Chiapella'va in campo per ritrovarsi a qupsta battaglia el pare, secundo se dice qua. EjL villa Gay die iO Junij Il 96 réfère à sa dépêche de la veille, annonçant que le duc de Bour- gogne était sorti de son caoïp pour se porter au-devant de reonemi qu'on supposait campé à Avencbes.

C'est de ce côté-ci, qui est do- miné par des hauteurs boisées, que les assiégés auraient te plus de chance d'être secourus. La Vf'ille 9 juin au soir, le duc de Bourgogne ayant pris position sur une colline à une demi lieue de Morat, a fait défiler devant lui toutes ses colonnes, qui se sont rangées en bataille sur les hauteurs en vue de la place, afin que la garnison suisse pût juger de la grande paiasance de l'armée assiégeante.

Dans la matinée du 10 , le duc. Suisses niaiires dans l'art de défendre les places et de disputer le terrain m l enncnii piods à pieds. La veille 9 juin , le comte de Romont avait anunié au camp envi- ron hommes de pieds des milices vaudoises, armés d'arquebuses et de mousquets.

Stando mo eosi qaesto S. Si che le cosse fino a que- sta hora stanno in questi termini. Âuto andara ananzi a campo a Berna, qoi Ticina ad tre leghe" che non he forte. Si intérim Suiceri vegnirano a spcorere questa terra li combatera, si minus tirara ananzi como e dicto. Et tra per non essere forte Berna, tra che questi pare stiano sbigntiiti ve lendo la S. Soa cosi grosso 11 pare el pensicro li andai a facto. Qucsli cai itanei vechj italiani, dicono essere magior campo che quello ebe la felice memoria di S.

Ghe seguira a la giomata avi- saro V. EngeJhard, Chrmiqite de Marni, Berne, , p. Elles forment une en- ceinte carrée, figurée en partie dans Schillinfj, 1. Cette déposition des prisonniers suisses était conforme à la décision de la diète de Litccrw, du 5 mTil: Panigahola au duc de Milan. Du camp de Morat, 12 juin On apprend que 4,0U0 Suisses sont entrés hier à Fribourg.

Ils ont surpris et pille quelques endroits, en y mettant le feu, et passé au lil de l'épée tous les habi- tants dont ils oui pu se saisir, etc. L'ambassadeur Milanais communique au duc de Bourgogne la copie d'une lettre de Biasea du 27 avril précédent , adressée au due de Milan, contenant des renseignements sur les rassemblements de troupes qui se font dans les vallées suisses de la Léventine, etc.

Messer Aloys Trotto d'Alexandrie], est venu demander du service au duc de Bourgogne, qui selon "sa coutume l'a bien accueilli ; lui disant d'exposer son affaire. L'ambassadeur lui répond qu'étant sujet Milanais, il ne se mêlera pas de son alEure, ni de toutes celles du même genre, sans y avoir été spécialement au- torisé par sa cour.

Le postulant dit qu'il est d'autant plus désappointé que le service de Bologne lui est fermé à cause de la peste qui sévit dans ces quartiers. Gosi banno facto grossi bastioni e reppari. Âlcuni de li soi presi dicono sarano socorsi, et che sono disposti tenerse.

Qiiesta nocte poxima a commandato a la brigata si aproximeno ala terra, trovandosî domatina con li stendardi soi nanzi le porte di la terra, e tal commanda- menlo a facto sotto pena la testa ali nuliiclerj, qiiali hanno promisso c dicte di farlo; di giorno non se ii po acostarc tanto hela fuiia dele bombardele et artigliaria; si che bi- sogna questa opéra si faci di nocte per cave. Parec- chi de U nostri sono feriti, cosi di loro trapassi e mortî parecbi, maxime per li boscbi qui vicini, dove stanno in frota sotto certe bandere in arme a deffendere li passi e robe che li anoo portato.

In sema qui intorno si Irovano ali passi , et si dubita costoro si ingegnerano torne la via di le victuaiie e serar li passi che li sara assai facile se non se li manda gran scorta. La qoaie si rasona di mandarli, e fomire alcnni loci in camino perche habiano via expedita. Tati li villagij circostanti fa prcfato signore brusare. Heri si sente a Filiborgo venono quatro millia Suiceri dentro da la terra, et che intonio cercano uuirse.

Quanti po questo S. Ho dicto a queslo S. Scrivendo questa mi e slato monstralo una lettera che pto S. Mi a riquesto lo faci moiistrandonie una vostia letera lais- siva a lui, per la qualc li dati licentia di aconzarsi dove vole ; li ho risposto essendo vostro subdito non me ne im- pazaria ne daltri ancora se questo non mi scrivesse: Sta perplexo et non sa che fare. Se piu oltra mi sara dicto cose alcnne, ne ayisero V.

Ben dicelui se V. Vedro mo che Soa S. Sentendo piu oltra avisaro V. Ex Gastris contra Horat 12 janij M'iUiCo de Cîarici, médecin italien du duc de Bourgogne. Antoine d'Appuno au duc de Milan. Gex, le 13 juin Frédéric et le comte Julio, accompagnent le duc de Bour- gogne toutes les fois que celui-ci monte à cheval. Le robbe dcl principe' non sono mostc ancora, et Madama me ha dicto essergli relïerto che le volevano portare in Horgogiia, dicendo cusi ridendo, certo qiiesli hanno paura in omni ioco.

Pallomaro quasi omne giorno venne a corte. Di questa parte Zobanne Petro, puo piu cbia- ramente avisare di me, perche io non posso scrivere se non corne sonno riportate le novelle qua. Ex Tilla 6ay 13 juny Soproicr, lUustrissimo principi etc. FirédériCi prince de Tarente. Antoine d'âppiano au duc de AIilan. Gez, le 14 juiu On a reçu dans la nujt des lettres du seigneur de La Chapelle et de M. Oo ne sait à ce récit est ou non une feble. Illustrissimo et excellentissîmo Signor nûo.

Qnesta sera tarde he porta jettera de Monsignore de la Cliiapella. E che Castelleto e si ben fornito, che fariano pensieri assay, prima che facesserono novita. Parendo a Yostra Exccllentia avisare qualche cosa de queste ûovelle facia corne gli piace. Un altro e venuto pur da campo questa sera, senza iit- tera, et ha dicto che un filborgese e venuto fora de Fil- borgo et e andato a Monsignor de fiorgagna, et dictogU: Prego Yostra Signorla, che me perdoni la vita et me habbt per suo servitore.

Io sono venuto per avisare Vostra Signe- ria, che quesli Alamani stanno cum gran paura, et non credevano, che doveste qucstanno rilornare in canipo, per ïa rntîn?

Et dice non bebbe altra resposta, se non cbe U foria pen- tii e de loro errori, etc. Gelsitudinis Vestre Devolissimus servulus Antonius de Aplano. Illustrissimo principi et Excellentissimo Duci Mediolani, elc.

Da camp derant Morat, 18 juin Eu alit iuldul oa affirme h Fribourg que les Suisses, tant de Berne que des autres cantons, se rassemblent en armes. Qaesta noete le compagnie dî gente darme e fanti si sono facte ananzi apresso ala terra, n.

Truyio et di quelli da Legnana, a qaaii a facto gran re- boffo questa matiaa par non essere andati piu ananzi. A Troilo hogie terzo giorno fece anco an gran reboffo pu- blieo in modo da alconi giorni in qoa non mi pare ne resti cosi satisfacto como de prima. Pure jua si slima non possino tenerc longamente. Ilhistrissimo et excellentissimo principi Daci Mediolani etc. Pëtrasanta au duc de Milan. Et sel non ha denari a sofficentia gli ne sarano mandati.

Panigarola ao duc de Milan. Du camp devant Mont 14 juin Ghe seguira avi- saro V. Ex Gastris contra Morat die 14 Jnnii Qei, le 16 juin Mgr de La Chnpelle, arrivé la veille au soir, fort lard du camp, s'est iiumédiatemefit rendu vers la duchesse de Savoie avec laquelle il a eu une conversation particulière assez longue, fort animée et très sérieuse liuiU Tarabassadeur Appiano, qui se trouvait présent, a cherché en vain à pénétrer le sujet.

Intrigues d'un émissaire français à la cour de Savoie. Monsignore de la Chiapella' e veriuto questa sera tarde a nocle, et subito giunto parlo moUo a longo cum Madama.

Dalla Villa Gay, logiugno b. DeYOtisstmns semdos Antonius de Aplano. Pamigarola au duc dë Milajs. Toutes les noupes qui font le âéga de Hxmt ont travaillé jow et Doit, depuis 24 heures, poar se rapprocher le plus possible delà place, soit en creusant des tmicbées, soit par d'autres moyens.

Fino qai ' quelli di la terra si sono ben deffesi, et monstrarono aiiimo, ma queste bombarde si crede li farano miitar colori, a le quaie questo fa mettere gran diiigentia, e questa nocte li e andato in persona a vedere.

Ex Castrls contra Morat 15 Junii T iimotn- de Benie, t. Il[mc princeps et Excellenlissime domine. Seconde el parlare del dicto Piceno pare dicto misser Taiiano liabia bona spe- ranza de auUai e in Borgogna cum una gran quanlîta de lio- mini larme taliani et che questi suoi canzeleri portarano in qaa dinari, si clie per lo amore porto a la V.

Ejnsdem Illnstris dominationis Vestre. In manibus propriis, cito. Il informe le duc de Milan que les habitants de la Léventinp ont du envoyer aux Suisses, leurs seigneurs, cinquante hommes de pieds pour entrer en campagne contre le duc de Bourgogne ; — ces hommes sont partis le plus secrètement possible, samedi 15 courant. Diostrissiiiie et Excellentissime Princeps ecc. Nil aliud pro preseali aisi quod D. Ex Abiasca die lune 17 Junij La duchesse de Savoie ayant reçu la veille une dépêche du gouver- neur de Nice, Ant.

Heri el governatore de Niza scrisse a questa Madiinia. Ma non gia aie letere ne cose importante son domandato. In summa dicto cavallaio se concorda cuva tutti initri, videlicet chel non se intende cosa alcana cbe Alamani faranno unione de gente per venire a soccorere Horrato. Bene afferma, che quelli di la terra ti- rano continiiàmente artellierie de fora et cbe non pno an- dare per el campo senza gran suspecto desse artilliarie.

Devotissimus servulus Antomius dë Aplano. Il commandait l'escorte que le duc avait donnée à la duchesse de Savoie, pendant sa résidence à Gex. Do eamp de Hoval, 17 juin Messire Olivier de La Marche a reçu les derniers ordres du duc, son maître, et doit partir demain. Sono iisciti juesta sera circa 70 homini ala via di le bombarde in furia di schiopiti, e niente anno potuto fare; anoo ben feriti parechi de li nostri de schiopetti. Do- mane avisaro che scguira.

Et Gastris contra Morat die 17 janij Elle abattit un pan de muraille entre Péglige de la ville haute et la porte de Berne. Panigabola au duc ob Milan. Du camp de Morat, 18 juin Le duc de Bourgogne est informé depuis lu veille au soir, tant par un priaonnier de la place que par d'autres voies, d'uQ plan formé par les Suisses pour délivrer la garoison de Moral, dôs la nuit prochaine ou le lendemain matin , en abandonnant dans la place rarlillerie et les bagages.

Dopoi fo di, assi dil campo in questi monticeUi circonstanti ordinando certe ba- taglie per li loci dove potessino venire e dando ordine che sopravenendo li inimici ogni une sapeâse dove andare. Hugie e quesla nocte dice farn tirare esse bombanio c di- sarmare quella banda di la terra r! Ex Gastris contra Horatdie 18 Jnnii Cantn, ÂMtonre de Cdme, i H, p.

Du camp de Mont, 18 juin U Se meglio avesse potnto farp, lharia facto volonlieri, questo sara uo principio quale questo S.

Spero li portamenti Tostri con ladiuto del N. Ri- cordandoTi che questa conditione vi da prefato S. EsL Castris contra Morat Junij Magnifico ac generoso Militi maiori ho- norando domino Ugoni de Sanclo Se- venoo, lUustrissimi ducis Burgundie armorum, etc.

Biasca, 19 juin Non obstantibus aliis meis iilteris et D. Nil aliud pro presenti nisi quod altissimus Deus omnipotens semper D. Et ad quaiu tiumiilissime me facio recomissum. Fidelissimum senrîtorèm SiDdicum fyschallem et Dot. Ltx camp de Morat, 19 juin Âsbaul donné à la ville de Morat le mardi, 18 juin. Deux vedettes des avant-postes du duc ont été enlevées cette nuit par Pennemi. Sur cette nouvelle, toutes les troupes du camp ont pris les armes ; — mais jusqu'à ce moment les Suisses n'ont point paru.

L ambassiideur milanais a appris de bonne source que don Frédéric partira bientôt , afipelé par le roi son père , qui l'envoie en France pour épouser une lille bossue gobba du roi Louis XL — Cet ordre aurait été apporté au prince par le comte Alberic, etc.

Le springarde Jîombarde et artigiiaria di questo S. Mo vedei a questo S. Ma cod- viene prima abatere tutc le diilcse di le torre, reveliui et bastioni da quelle caoto. Inten- dero meglio il fondamento di tnto et vi a? Ex Gastris contra Morat 19 imn Dlastrissimo et excellentissimo principi Duci Mediolani, etc.

Cum sigillo, i bchiliing 1. Le roi l'accorda, très-volontiers, etc. Gnichenon, Eùtoire de Saooie, 1. Digrtized by Google J. Pamigarola au duc dë Milan. Du camp de Morat, 20 juin Les uns disent qu'ils sont 12,, d'autres 15 et même 20 mille combattants; le nombre réel est encore incertain, mais on sait qu'ils rassemblent le plus possible de gens, el qu'ils sont résolus de venir incessamment tenter une attaque contre l'armée bourguignonne.

On fortifiera ces bastions de manière à pouvoir être dé- fendus avec peu de monde, et à pouvoir retirer une partie des troupes employées à faire le siège de la place. Hessire Olivier de La Marche est parti pour la cour de Milan.

II ira ensuite à Gex pour se concerter avec la duebesse de Savoie au sujet de la défense de ces passages, et pour prendre ses lettres 5 l'adresse du duc de Milan. El danno de li ioimici non si sa perfectameDte, ma per coniecture si stima grande.

A qneste provisione mo si mette stu- dio, perche poi domane laltro che be sabàto, facilmente potriano li inimici venire, perche in quello di fanno le mo- stre loro volontieri c quello voleno tare. Extia non perdendo tempo in camino, como domane avisaro di tuto.

Ex Castris contra Iforat 30 Junii Kne- bel, Diarium, 1. Il s'agissait d'augmenter les garnisons piémontaises des places frontières de la Savoie et du Piémont du côté du Dauphiné. Tarin, 21 juin Il S'' confirme que le roi de France a fait passer de nouveaux se- couTï.

Chaque jour il arrive en Piéoiont des gens venant de Genève qui ont été dévalisés en roule, et qui en comparant ce qui se passe au delà des Alpes avec la tranquillité qui régne en deçà portent aux nues le nom du due de Milan, dont la répulation ne peut que gagner au lémoignage de ces étrangers.

Anzi ne hanno anchora tanta che secondo mha riferto i! Servira bene al proposito de la materia di M. Gelsitudine mi reco- mando. Taurini 31 Jnny U IHnstrissimo et Excellentissimo dno. Qex, 21 juin U7e. Ae à son départ, parce qu'on lui a laissé ignorer le jour où la bataille doit avoir lieu, alin de lui en épargner les angoisses. Elle vil dans l'espérance d'une prochaine victoire, où elle voit son sa- lut, et n'admet pas la possibilité d'un événement contraire.

En atten- dant elle ordoruie continuellement des processions, fait dire des messes et distribuer des aumônes extraordinaires dans tous les Etals, pour le succès des armes du duc de Bourgogne. Hesser Coîlazo le mandataire du capitaine San-'SewHino a quitté le camp, portant au seigneur de Ghàleau-Guyon une lettre de serviee du duo de Bourgogne pour son maître à raison de cent lances, etc. Riceomaiidaodomi sempre ala bona gratta di V.

Ex villa Gay 21 Juny U Devotîssimns Servulus, Antonius de Aplano. CùntiçiUo, t Philibert de Gompey, seigneur de La diappelle, etc. BrideoL Digitized by Goo. Antoinb d'Appiano au duc de Milan.

Oex, 22 juin U76 Ml matin. Néanmoins on ajnuto ne ponrronl tenir longtemps s'ils ne sont seconnis. Par non la porrano dorare, non es- sendo succorsi. Ejusdem Celsitudinis Vestre Fïrmat. Les fortifications dcoitil est parlé dans la dépêche s'élevaient au Grand-Guminef sur le côté droit de la rivière. Quant au pont de Laitpen qui se trouve à une bonne lieue en amont de l'autre, il était défendu par la garnison suisse de cette petite ville, célèbce par la notoire que les Bernois aTSient emportée en sorlenn ennemis.

La duchesse de Savoie vient d'Atre informée li l 'instant que le prince de Tarenle, Don Frédéric, a pris congé du duc de Bourgogne la veille, après le dîner, pour retourner vers le roi Ferdinand, son père. Le seigneur de La Narche qui lui aussi avait quitté le camp de Morat la veille su mir pour se rendre à la cour de Milan, écrit que ce brusque départ du prince D.

Frédéric, emmenant avec lui che- vaux , est nttribué h une entente secrète entre le roi Ferdinand, son père, et le roi de France. Riccomandandomi sem- pre a la buiia gratia di V. Qex, le 23 juin , à 1 heure après-midi. Première nouvelle de la bataille de Moral. RicomaadaDdomi sem- pre ala bona gralia di V. Madama fu avisata levosse sabito: In summa qna non si poteva quasi credere.

Tandem uno e ritornato e dice haverc trovato novelle che vei amenle le stato rotto, et che quasi lutte le faiitarie sono rimaste luorle, et monsignore de Borgogna e aodato verso la Borgogna. Altre particularita non se sa anchora.

Ex villa Gay 23 Juni Gex, le juin , à S heures après-midi. Confirination de la nouvelle de la défaite de l'armée bourguignonne à Morat. Hicomaodaodomi sempre ala bona gratia di Vostra Sablimita. E mono Ânto- nin da LegnanaS ma fantarie assay, et sonno perse tatte le artiDarie, pavilloni, tende et carriagi, aut puochi ne sonno salvati. Se io scrivo el contrascrivo, V. Ëi principe prefato e anchora qua, non so sel partira hogi come haveva deliberato, o vero vorraaspectare prefato Monsignore di Borgogna.

Ala Signoria Vostra itteram me ricomando. Ex villa Gay 23 juny Ejusdem Gelsitudinis Veslre Firmat. DeTOtissimus servulns Antontos de Aplano. Antoine de TJfjn ina , cupitaino dn cent lancpî? Oex, le 23 juin an ssix. Le duc de Bourgogne arrive i Gex le 25 juin au soir, vers 6 heures. Bene, vero suffit; era molto affanato, près! Ëssi venerono el cum loro parlo lunga- mente. De artilla- rie, paviglioni, tende aut carriagy, nulla aul pocho e sal- vato. Sonno morti eliam parechy homini darme cherano a pede verso la giiardia de In Terra, Ira quali erano alcuni a cavallo foroDo morti, ma uod gia gran numéro: E morto, se dice, el Bastardo di Borgogna, non dico el primo S.

A la Ceisîtadine Y. Ex villa Gay 23 Juny Antoine d'Appiano, au doc de Milan. Gex, 24 juin L'ambassadeur milanais ayant demandé h la duchesse de Savoie combien de tenais elle pen. Elle ajoute que dn reste elle lui a renvoyé Jean Lalier , avec de bonne? L'îuiibassadeur écrit qu'il tàehera de savoir quelle réponse on a donné ù cet émissaire du roi. Ma qnando par bixognasse andaremo a S. Gon- clodo per quel pnocho chio intendo essergli forza metterse totalmente in mane del Signore Re aot di Vostra Excellenza Tolendo rimanere nel stato suc, quale V.

Ex vUla Gay U itmy Ejasdem Gelsitudinis Vestre Firtnat. Devotissimus servulus Antonius de Aplano. Gex, 2â juin Tous les équipages du prince de Tarente avaient pris la veille la route de la Bourgogne, en se dirigeant sur St-Glaude.

Hiccomandandomi scrapre ala bona gratia di V. Vero e che le passato a loro, per la via de Genevra, verso el dicto camino. Don Federico mando beri via tutti li snoi carriagi per la volta di Borgogna verso S. Glandio', circba 45 mnlli cari- cbi de belli et hooorevoli carriagy, et circba altritanti de carriagy grossi. Credeva dovesse andare via luy anchora, non e partito. Oa villa Gay â5 giogno Il avait pris d'avance ses mesures pour arrêter la marche des Suisses dans le cas où la victoire se déclarerait poor eux.

Petrasanta an duc de Milan. Benche mi rendo cer- tissimo V. De le cose predicte ne ho visto una litlera che ha scritto el faltore do Riiffîno de Mûris' da Ginevra. Il governo se ne occuperà tra breve" Poco dopo Berlusconi tenta una riforma che taglia drasticamente le pensioni, poi bloccata da una manifestazione sindacale con oltre un milione di persone e dalla dissociazione del suo ministro del Lavoro Clemente Mastella, nonché del partito alleato Lega Nord che lascia il governo e lo rovescia.

L'Osservatorio dell'università di Pavia sulle televisioni dimostra, ininterrottamente dal , che i politici più presenti sulle reti televisive sono Berlusconi e i suoi uomini. Ma è vero il contrario. Più di qualsiasi altra, la sua vendita pose le basi del capitalismo ad azionariato popolare in Gran Bretagna Fui più che soddisfatta quando nel novembre British Telecom fu finalmente privatizzata".

La presidenza del Consiglio non la reputo essenziale, non ho questa ambizione personale" Sono assolutamente favorevole ad un tecnico a Palazzo Chigi, io potrei restare leader del Polo in cabina di regia" Meglio tornare a curare le mie aziende" Silvio Berlusconi avrà sempre un solo candidato per Palazzo Chigi: Noi non teorizziamo né tantomeno pratichiamo l'informazione come strumento di ricatto politico.

I nostri sono eccellenti prodotti editoriali, non fabbriche di consenso o, quel che è peggio, di calunnie, di derisione, di disprezzo.

Lascio questi metodi ad altri" Epoca, Chiunque conosca giornali e tv berlusconiani sa che, almeno dopo l'entrata in politica di Berlusconi, sono stati trasformati in formidabili strumenti di attacco, aggressione e spesso anche di diffamazione per i magistrati e gli avversari politici del loro proprietario.

Le procure non c'entrano nulla. La Cassazione ha già accertato definitivamente che All Iberian è interamente controllata dalla Fininvest. Tant'è che i suoi conti esteri venivano aperti dal tesoriere centrale del gruppo Berlusconi, Giuseppino Scabini. All Iberian è una società off- shore con sede all'estero isole del Canale , come le altre 63 scoperte dal pool di Milano e confermate dalla società di revisione internazionale Kpmg.

Le 34 holding "Italiana 1,2,3,4 eccetera" che stanno dietro alla Fininvest sin dalla fine degli anni 70 e le altre società della galassia berlusconiana nascono quasi tutte senza il nome di Berlusconi, ma intestate a prestanome: In parte giunti in contanti. Sulla provenienza di quel fiume di denaro, Berlusconi non ha mai voluto spiegare nulla.

Nemmeno quando, nel novembre , il Tribunale di Palermo che sta processando il suo braccio destro Marcello Dell'Utri parlamentare europeo e italiano, già condannato per false fatture e frode fiscale e imputato per mafia, calunnia ed estorsione , si è recato in trasferta a Palazzo Chigi per interrogarlo.

In quell'occasione, alle domande sulle origini di quei quattrini e sulle ragioni che lo indussero a ospitare in casa sua per due anni un boss mafioso del calibro di Vittorio Mangano, con mansioni di "stalliere" o di "fattore", il premier ha Berlusconi ha risposto: E i giudici sono ritornati a Palermo a mani vuote. Le tasse degli italiani resteranno le stesse, anzi aumenteranno per l'incremento sostanzioso dei tributi regionali e comunali, in conseguenza dei tagli ai trasferimenti governativi a comuni e regioni.

Il 13 novembre , in visita a Granada Sagna , Berlusconi e il suo ministro dell'Economia Giulio Tremonti comunicano che "i conti pubblici non sono ancora a posto", dunque 23 di ridurre le tasse non se ne parla. E' colpa di una sinistra irresponsabile che diffonde notizie false sul mio conto" In realtà Berlusconi, soltanto il giorno prima, ha dichiarato testualmente in una conferenza stampa dalla Germania: Cosa che non c'è nei paesi dell'Islam Dobbiamo evitare di mettere le due civiltà, quella islamica e quella nostra sullo stesso piano.

La libertà non è un patrimonio della civiltà islamica. La nostra civiltà deve estendere a chi è rimasto indietro di almeno anni nella storia i benefici e le conquiste che l'Occidente conosce. C'è una singolare coincidenza fra gli islamici e gli anti-global nella loro opposizione all'Occidente". Poi l'incidente diplomatico internazionale, le proteste della Lega Araba "posizioni razziste" , l'imbarazzo dell'Occidente impegnato nel tentativo di coinvolgere nella lotta al terrorismo fondamentalista delle Due Torri i paesi islamici moderati.

Senonché Prodi cade dalle nuvole: Anche Solbes lo smentisce: Berlusconi è costretto alla retromarcia: Poi, in conferenza stampa, se la prende con il "club della menzogna della sinistra" che gli attribuirebbe frasi mai dette.

Appena tornato al governo, Berlusconi, che già detiene il monopolio assoluto della televisione commerciale Canale 5, Italia 1, Rete 4 , nomina suoi uomini al vertice delle tre reti pubbliche Rai presidente Antonio Baldassarre, direttore generale Agostino Saccà. Costoro allontanano dal video i due giornalisti più famosi della Rai, sgraditi al premier - Enzo Biagi e Michele Santoro - nonché il comico Daniele Luttazzi, anche lui inviso al Cavaliere.

Poi, quando il primo consiglio di amministrazione si dimette agli inizi del , Berlusconi riunisce gli alleati in casa propria per decidere i nuovi consiglieri, facendo infuriare addirittura i presidenti delle due Camere, che rifiutano di ratificare le nomine. Alla fine, viene creato un nuovo Cda Rai formato da 4 esponenti del centro-destra e uno solo del centro-sinistra. Anche il direttore generale, amico di Berlusconi e del fratello Paolo, è di stretta obbedienza governativa.

Sono cose che non hanno più nulla di economico, di morale. Nel calcio abbiamo sbagliato tutti, ora basta" L'indomani il Milan di Berlusconi annuncia l'acquisto di Nesta, avvenuto da almeno una settimana. Come parere personale, non credo che ci siano più quegli ordigni" , al termine di un lungo incontro con Vladimir Putin. Non ho mai detto che Saddam non ha armi di distruzione di massa.

Dico solo che potrebbe avere avuto il tempo di distruggerle o di metterle da qualche altra parte" , dopo le incredule proteste di Londra e Washington. Berlusconi smentisce le rivelazioni del quotidiano La Repubblica, il quale calcola che il condono fiscale contenuto nella legge finanziaria Berlusconi consentirà al gruppo Mediaset di chiudere la lite col fisco per il possesso di società off-shore risparmiando multe per milioni di euro, pari a miliardi di lire.

Altra cosa sono certi pm che vogliono un ruolo particolare e imbastiscono processi che finiscono nel nulla" 26 gennaio L'indomani la Cassazione gli dà torto e non sposta i suoi processi da Milano. Lui, il premier, tuona subito contro i "giudici golpisti". Sono vittima di una grande ingiustizia. Mi dicono che questo avviso è la risposta a quanto stiamo facendo" Siccome sono certo di chiamarmi Silvio Berlusconi, non credo che nessun tribunale giusto al mondo possa condannarmi perché mi chiamo Silvio Berlusconi.

Sarebbe come incolpare suor Teresa di Calcutta, dopo una vita di sacrifici, se una bambina dell'istituto allungasse una mano per pigliare un quarto di mela dal fruttivendolo, non per sé, ma per darlo ad un altro" Il vero scandalo sta semmai nel fatto che la mia impresa, come quasi tutte le imprese italiane, sia stata sottoposta a pressioni concussive da parte di un corpo armato dello Stato Siamo stati costretti a pagare da un'associazione a delinquere come la Guardia di Finanza, da elementi deviati di un corpo armato dello Stato" Con buona pace dell'incolpevole prole, due dirigenti Fininvest verranno definitivamente condannati per corruzione della Guardia di Finanza, un consulente legale definitivamente per favoreggiamento, i due segretari per falsa testimonianza in primo e secondo grado, mentre Berlusconi verrà condannato dal Tribunale per corruzione, dichiarato prescritto cioè responsabile, ma non più punibile dalla Corte d'appello, infine assolto dalla Cassazione.

Ma solo per "insufficienza probatoria". Ma i massimi dirigenti di Publitalia, dal presidente fondatore Marcello Dell'Utri in giù, hanno patteggiato condanne per decine di miliardi di false fatture e frodi fiscali. Craxi è colui che nel impose con il suo governo al Parlamento ben due decreti ad personam, i "decreti Berlusconi", per salvare le televisioni dell'amico finite sotto inchiesta e minacciate di sequestro dai magistrati perché trasmettevano illegalmente su tutto il territorio nazionale.

Ma Berlusconi non ha lasciato la vita politica. Una costante dell'azione politica è l'attacco sistematico, scientifico, incessante alla magistratura di ogni ordine e grado: Prima non avevo mai subito nulla del genere" Ma è vero il contrario: La prima indagine poi archiviata sul Berlusconi imprenditore, per traffico di droga, fu aperta a Milano nel lontano Lo stesso Berlusconi, al momento di entrare in politica verso la fine del , aveva confidato ai famosi giornalisti Enzo Biagi e Indro Montanelli che l'hanno poi raccontato: Berlusconi si ostina a ripetere che, nel , il suo governo fu rovesciato dall'invio di un "avviso di garanzia" per le mazzette Fininvest alla Guardia di Finanza, a Napoli, mentre lui presiedeva un convegno sulla criminalità organizzata.

Si trattava in realtà di un "invito a comparire" una convocazione per un interrogatorio , dovuto per legge, che non fu affatto notificato a Napoli, ma a Roma. E fu preannunciato al telefono all'interessato la sera prima 21 novembre '94 dai carabinieri. Fu dunque Berlusconi, pur sapendo di essere sospettato di corruzione, a decidere ugualmente di presiedere il convegno anche l'indomani giorno 22 , esponendo il buon nome dell'Italia al ludibrio internazionale.

Ai magistrati milanesi, secondo un'informativa dei carabinieri, risultava che lui, la sera stessa del 21, sarebbe rientrato a Roma abbandonando il convegno napoletano inaugurato la mattina. Quanto alle ragioni della caduta del governo, quell'atto non ebbe alcuna conseguenza. L'hanno stabilito i magistrati di Brescia, ai quali Berlusconi aveva presentato un esposto contro i magistrati milanesi per "attentato agli organi costituzionali" cioè al suo primo governo.

Nell'ordinanza del giudice Carlo Bianchetti che il 15 maggio archivia l'inchiesta e assolve il pool di Milano, si legge: Bossi era venuto a sapere dell'intenzione del capo del governo di "andare alle elezioni anticipate in autunno". Per la Sme mi aspetterei non un processo, ma una medaglia d'oro al valore civile per avere salvato l'Italia da una svendita di un bene pubblico per miliardi quando ne valeva ".

La teste Stefania Ariosto non parla dell'affare Sme: In realtà, nel processo Sme, gli imputati sono sotto accusa per alcuni bonifici bancari. Il primo riguarda l'industriale Pietro Barilla deceduto nel ' Pacifico versa, secondo l'accusa, milioni in contanti al giudice Filippo Verde, e tramite bonifico a milioni a Previti e al giudice Renato Squillante.

Il secondo bonifico chiama invece direttamente in causa la Fininvest. Il 6 marzo , dal conto svizzero "Ferrido", aperto dal capo della tesoreria Fininvest Giuseppino Scabini, vengono accreditati Secondo l'accusa, il conto Ferrido della galassia All Iberian era alimentato con fondi personali e familiari di Berlusconi. Di qui l'accusa, per tutti, di corruzione giudiziaria. Le vinse Berlusconi, occupando lo spazio lasciato libero dal pentapartito che si era sciolto per mancanza di voti dopo lo scandalo.

L'autoaffondamento dei vecchi governanti, schiacciati dal peso del debito pubblico e del finanziamento illegale dei partiti, lascia il paese impreparato e incerto Siamo l'Italia che lavora contro l'Italia che ruba".

Ma evidentemente, all'epoca, Berlusconi non li considerava "toghe rosse". Anche questo cavallo di battaglia della polemica berlusconiana anti-giudici è smentita dai fatti e, soprattutto, dalla relazione consegnata al governo dai quattro ispettori ministeriali inviati contro il pool di Milano nell'ottobre dal guardasigilli Alfredo Biondi Forza Italia, primo governo Berlusconi. Relazione resa nota il 15 maggio ' Non si è riscontrata un'apprezzabile e significativa casistica di annullamenti delle decisioni che hanno dato luogo a quelle detenzioni [ I provvedimenti custodiali sono stati spesso suffragati [ Né è risultato che tali confessioni siano state in seguito ritrattate perché rese sotto la minaccia dell'ulteriore protrarsi della detenzione [ Non è possibile ascrivere quelle confessioni alle "condizioni fisiche e psicologiche disumane" nelle quali si sarebbero venuti a trovare molti indagati, alcuni dei quali suicidatisi, condizioni cui fa riferimento l'on.

A parte le considerazioni già esposte, è interessante leggere la risposta data il 23 ottobre dal ministro dell'Interno britannico Simon Brown al Parlamento britannico, per spiegare il diniego opposto al ricorso degli avvocati di Berlusconi, i quali parlavano di inchieste e reati "politici" per opporsi alla consegna dei documenti sui conti esteri della galassia All Iberian: Le donazioni politiche illegali sono un reato politico?

A me sembra piuttosto un reato contro la legge ordinaria promulgata per garantire un corretto ordinamento del processo democratico in Italia - reato in nulla diverso, diciamo, dal votare due volte alle elezioni [ Il reato in questione è stato commesso per influenzare la politica del governo: È un uso scorretto del linguaggio definire la campagna dei magistrati come improntata a "fini politici", o le loro azioni nei confronti del signor Berlusconi come persecuzione politica.

Nessuno degli argomenti dei richiedenti riesce a persuadermi in nulla che i reati in questione siano politici. Non riesco proprio a vedere i pagatori corrotti della politica come i "Garibaldi di oggi", o cercatori di libertà, o "prigionieri politici". Io posso dire che per fare politica ne ho spesi parecchi" Il primo governo Berlusconi passerà alla storia per due provvedimenti: Sono il primo a proporre una soluzione di separazione drastica tra l'esercizio dei doveri di governo e l'esercizio dei diritti proprietari" Credo che quella del blind trust americano sia la soluzione ideale" Nove anni dopo il suo primo governo e due anni dopo l'avvio del secondo, Berlusconi non ha risolto il conflitto d'interessi né tantomeno ha ceduto alcuna delle sue aziende.

Anzi, il 21 dicembre , comunica agli italiani che "il conflitto d'interessi esiste solo nel senso che le mie aziende ci hanno rimesso da quando sono entrato in politica al servizio del Paese". E il 7 maggio , ancora più esplicito: Tutti vedono bene che non c'è nessun conflitto d'interessi. Anzi, io non posso fare che cose sfavorevoli al mio gruppo. Non c'è stata una sola decisione assunta da questa maggioranza e da questo governo che abbia portato cose a mio favore.

Mau mau terminei o 3ro. Vendi tudo que eu tinha, camera, barraca, correntinha, raquetes, roupas, so nao vendi minhas irmas gente, e cheguei aqui a algum tempo atraz. Cheio de amor pra dar e com as portas da Imigracao abertas por Deus, ta vendo, eu gosto dele mesmo , me deixaram entrar, sem problemas. Cheguei aqui num dia lindo de verao, beijei o chao como o Papa e nunca mais voltei pra terra que me alfabetizou.

Fica melhor, com nove dias de America, conheci minha atual esposa, coitada dela , nao sabia onde ela estava se metendo..

A gente conversava por horas e horas, eu sem falar nada em Ingles e ela sem nem saber se Buenos Aires era mesmo a Capital Brasileira. De nosso encontro tivemos 2 filhos, um mora com Deus e a outra, mora na Universidade, e nos dois, continuamos morando juntos, no nosso terceiro abrigo, onde tudo que conseguimos eh fruto de muito esforco e trabalho.

Sou Consultor de vendas automobilisticas, em outras palavras, sou mais um esteriotipado vendedor de carros, a 21 anos representando a marca Jeep, Chrysler e Dodge, tem sido uma experiencia de vida tambem, sou super empenhado, adoro o que faco e nao trocaria isso por nada, a nao ser, ser musico profissional, ou artista de novela, gostaria de fazer o povo chorar, como eu, choro mesmo ao ficar emotivo.

Amo musica, principalmente Hermeto, aos 39 comecei a apreender a tocar bateria, agora estudo violao classico a alguns anos, mas ele nao combina muito bem comigo nao, mas nao desisto, sera minha conquista pessoal. Tenho uns amigos que tocam muito, geralmente encontramos nos das 7 as 11 em minha casa, onde tenho um lugarzinho para tocar aos sabados, tomar uma cerveja, sentir um cheirinho de maconha, so sentir, adoro mas nao fumo, sou quadrado, respeito as leis e as autoridades, acho parte integral o respeito ao proximo e nossos deveres, obrigacoes e papeis na sociais.

Nao gosto de ladrao, estudei artes marciais, e Zazen, por alguns anos e nao gostaria de ver ou experimentar o que apreendi, se eh que apreendi alguma coisa. Sou tambem, lavador de prato, profissao que eu masterizei em 3 meses, desenvolvi uma tecnica incrivel onde eu trabalhava, quando fui promovido a "fazedor de salada" eu era capaz de jogar os pratos nas prateleiras sem quebrar nenhum, mesmo com tamanhos e formas diferentes.

Apreendi a comunicar me em Espanhol, Italiano e Inglez ao mesmo tempo, cheguei a ser ajudante de chefe de cozinha, onde apreendi o basico, fui preparador de alimentos,. Era tambem um otimo Ajudante de Garcon, mas nao trabalhei muito disso muito pessado pro meu gosto ,carregar peso, Trabalhei em restaurantes famosos, acho que eu era ou fui o melhor garcon de NY, ganhava muito dinheiro na epoca, o lugar era super divertido, Leley trabalhou comigo por la tambem e a gente aprontava muito.

Eramos unidos, os ajudantes ou Busboys, eram brasileiros, alguns dos caras da cozinha eram brasileiros tambem, onde entra um, entravam todos, para sua ideia.

Os Garcons eram atores e atrizes, cantores e cantoras, quando rolava o Happy Birthday to you, eles se empolgavam, a gente se agregava na mesa e eles cantavam com as vozes mais lindas, falsetos, operas, coisa mais linda, e nossa turminha chegava atraz avacalhando, cantando, Oh parabens pra voce, o nessa data querida, batendo nas bandeijas com os martelinhos usados para os carangueijos ao ritmo geral do nosso samba.

Quando nao tinha gente fazendo aniversario, as vezes pegavamos uma pessoa de uma mesa e instituia naquele momento que era o aniversario dela, puxava o canto e coro e adorava ver o rostinho sem graca falando, nao eh nao, nao eh hoje nao, cheio de espanto. Tinha ate a Silvinha, aquela que apareceu de bundinha na famosa revista Pop, de minha epoca, na capa, um broto. Eu servia cerveja como ninguem, conversava e atendia aos clientes Japoneses, na epoca, eu e Leley ja estavamos ate apreendendo bem a se comunicar em Japones.

Ali tambem eu apreendi um pouco de Frances Jabacule, com uns Haitianos que falavam Creoule, que nos achavam, como brasileiros, o maximo. Prescisava de uma renda fixa, para poder mostrar na entrevista da Imigracao que eu conseguiria manter minha familia.

Adoro vinhos tintos e cerveja, mas nao posso beber, nao tenho resistencia, com duas tacas eu fico alegre, para a tristeza de minha esposa, ela nao bebe, e detesta que eu fale bobagens. Sou um bom jogador de Table Tennis, sou um ruim tenista e sou louco por golf, que jogo a muitos anos, mas por nao treinar muito devido a falta de tempo eu nunca melhoro a ponto de poder jogar com o Greg Norman ou Tiger Woods.

Minha outra camera eh uma Nikon F3, gosto da ergonometria da Nikon, mas acho a Cannon melhor, mas ela nao combina comigo. Detalle del frontón oriental del Partenón: Jambas de la portada central del Pórtico Real de la Catedral de Chartres: Reyes y reinas del Antiguo Testamento. Retrato ecuestre del condotiero Guidoriccio da Flogiano; Fresco de la sala del Mapamondo. Bodegón de limones, naranjas y cacharros. The Norton Simon Museum. Se trata de un óleo sobre lienzo que mide 19 x 25 cm.

Pertenece a una de las importantes galerías privadas belgas. El pintor ejecutó un gouache en con el mismo título y que se puede considerar una réplica bien que los compartimentos albergan en esta ocasión la cabeza de una paloma, un cascabel, una copa de cristal y el papel recortado.

Our report by images demonstrates the Beauty of Art Works discovered here and there. You will notice a new golden Buddhist Art Traditional Vietnamese age. Wherever you go you will notice Pagodas richly endowed and beautifully decorated by artists of great talent. We recommend visiting these Pagodas, we believe the best of South Vietnam:. Accusé de réception à la haute qualité de l'enseignement des Académies et Écoles des Beaux-Art du Vietnam. Partout où vous irez vous remarquerez des Pagodes richement dotées et merveilleusement décorées par des artistes de grands talents.

Nous recommandons la visite de ces Pagodes, selon nous les plus belles du Sud-Vietnam:. Tornando dalla messa, senza accompagnatori, ho visto schiacciato sulla strada un tubetto di gloss per le labbra rosso e cremoso come il sangue nel film di ieri.

Mi ha fatto tenerezza. Mi ha fatto pensare alle labbra ancora che se ne sono private, a un fiore schiacciato, a dei petali sciupati, a un quadro incompleto. Sono corsa via e ho strizzato gli occhi e anche un po' la pancia, bè, perchè credo che strisciante, come la sfiga, sia tornata lei, nostra signora delle cistiti , e non posso prendere nessuna pozione magica perchè ho nel sangue quel po' di alcool che mi amplifica il dolore e che tiene lontano il rimedio.

Cronaca del mio fine settimana lontano dalla realtà. Iniziato con l'equivoco di un discorso lungo 1. Since November is the month of the Holy Souls, I thought we might spend some time reflecting on Purgatory.

Of course it does, and a good thing too given that very few of us die in a state of perfect grace. Second, because it shows a Catholic priest doing one of the principal things he was ordained to do, i. For some reason I thought Father Cooper was a Jesuit no glasses on and was so pleased that a modern priest was so sound. Purgatory most definitely does exist!! These stark truths should aid us all in comprehending the significance of the Scapular and the Sabbatine Privilege.

MSC, I looked up Sabbatine Privilege and the explication was so longwinded that were I to read it, I would neglect my station in life and never get the dinner ready! The assurance of salvation through the Brown Scapular is bestowed to us through one of the many indulgences that are attached to this sacramental.

An indulgence is the remission of temporal punishment for sins that would otherwise be suffered painfully in purgatory. Or, to observe the fasts of the Church together with abstaining from meat on Wednesday and Saturday. We know that no imperfect person can enter heaven because God is perfection and cannot, therefore, admit imperfection to enter His presence.

So what does He do, he creates a place where we may expiate our imperfections and be purified for heaven. Yes, the suffering of the souls in Purgatory are very great, greater than anything we can imagine.

Let us never forget to pray for these Holt Souls that they may have their only wish granted, e. In our modern Church there is a big assumption that we are all going to Heaven no matter what simply because God loves us and Hell and Purgatory dont exist.

It is also good for us to look at ourselves honestly because mortal sin and venial sins are also a reality that could indeed lead us to Hell or if we are lucky Purgatory. One thing I would point out is that there is no question that Mortal Sin only leads to one place — Hell. Eileenanne consistently has problems with headlines — she does not appear to understand that the purpose of a headline is to provoke the reader, whether to read further or, in this case, to explore issues in discussion.

What do you make of the words of Our Lady about the soul being in Purgatory until the end of the world? I suppose I was making the point the sometimes I wonder that the degree to which people believe in traditional doctrine is proportional to the example they are set by the prelates whose job it is to set an example. Obviously though, the existence of purgatory is not subjective but objective and purgatory does exist regardless of how many people believe in it. I found this website after attending a talk by Father Gruner in Burghclere, Hampshire which was very uplifting.

I have been following it ever since. As Grignion says below, we have become a little defensive now following some aggressive bloggers from the world of tolerance and humanity — atheism… Some of our new atheist bloggers are very nice, pleasant people who genuinely seek debate but there are some who are — apparently — making mischief and seem to be wanting nothing more than to disrupt.

I mistook you for one! Sorry and be assured that you are very welcome indeed. Have you been to the pub tonight, Editor? Please forgive the frosty reception. The drawings were by Botticelli, there was a phone thingy that you could listen to learned types talking about Dante and his times as well as the art of Botticelli.

Walking through the first part with the description of Hell and all the sins and failings that send people there, you are left in despair, who can be saved, it almost seems impossible, that any one at all can escape Hell.

Then you see the people having crossed the River Styx landing in Purgatory, how joyfully Botticelli pictures them talking up their burdens.

You begin to rejoice all is not lost. Also true is that the doctrine of purgatory is hated by some in the Church in Scotland. I remember in particular one really angry complaint that I was frightening a family by preaching about purgatory at a Requiem Mass. The complaint was made by a religious sister. In answer to your earlier question, only some souls remain in Purgatory until the end of the world.

Each soul stays only for as long as is necessary depending on the weight of their culpability. Not all souls are there until the end of the world. Yes, things have got so bad now that even religious sisters are scandalised by the thought that souls might be in Purgatory.

The devil is clever indeed! I know of at least two priests in Scotland who have been carpeted by their bishop for preaching about Hell. It is absolutely incredible that these things are happening. I have, therefore, no difficulty whatsoever believing your experience. On Sunday, one of our readers handed me a leaflet from a recent funeral in a Glasgow parish. What a total LACK of charity that is.

Imagine the soul, desperate for prayers to be released from the pains of Purgatory, and the family unconcerned. And, sad as it is, I am not surprised that the complaint against you was made by a religious sister. The speed with which religious sisters fell to modernism after the Council, still leaves me reeling when I think about it. I hope you will not be deterred from preaching sound doctrine at funerals, difficult though that may be.

There are bound to be some Catholics left, surely, who will appreciate hearing the truth. I missed your question about souls remaining in Purgatory until the end of the world — and would just add this, to what Athanasius has said, that it is because we can win release for the souls in Purgatory that we are encouraged to pray for them.

We can win indulgences for them and it is so important that we do pray for our deceased relatives and friends, knowing that we CAN help to speed their entry into Heaven. That is the beauty of the doctrine of the Communion of Saints. We can all help each other. The Church Triumphant in heaven can help us here on earth, we can help the Suffering Souls in Purgatory and the Souls in Purgatory although they cannot help themselves can help us! God bless you in your apostolate to spread this devotion.

You are so kind. I always feel I have so much in common with those who share my love of Carmel. You are blessed indeed and God Bless you as well for your aid in this special devotion. Most of us wear black to funerals.

I see now how wrong I was in that assumption. As you say, it matters very little how many deny Purgatory. It exists and it is Scriptiural! We read in Macabees Our Lord in the Gospels also makes allusion to Purgatory when he is correcting those who refuse to forgive debts.

So also my heavenly Father will do to every one of you, if you do not forgive your brother from your heart. If the work which any man has built on the foundation survives, he will receive a reward. And there is this from St. Purgatory is a place of suffering, just like Hell proper. The vast difference between Purgatory and Hell proper, though, is that the souls in Purgatory are saved while those in Hell are eternally damned.

Pius XII said it was a grave error to eradicate black from the liturgical colours. You keep the black vestments and let them keep their fear.

It should help keep their minds set on eternity! I think that a considerable factor to be overcome is that it is so long since the doctrine of the faith has been taught in its entirety that it comes as a real surprise and sometimes a shock when it is taught. In the case of purgatory, in my situation, it appears to have been received as a quirky teaching of a quirky priest which can be accepted or rejected.

I think the modest number of November lists returned is ample testimony to this thesis. My comment regarding the Pope being Catholic was really a reflection of my annoyance that the Pope seemed to imply that limbo did not exist or that somehow he was abolishing limbo.

If that is the case then what is the point of baptism? What incentive is there to baptise a baby? If you abolish original sin then what was the point of the redemption. Perhaps someone here can provide some clarification. Quine, we begin from the point of faith, on this blog.

We are here to grow in our faith. We just cannot switch from our purpose of educating ourselves in our faith, to educating atheists. We are delighted for you to read our blog and contribute if you wish, in sincerity, but we are not going to switch discussion of Purgatory to discussion of the existence of the soul.

I offer it to Thee as a just tribute of adoration and praise, in thanksgiving for the innumerable benefits Thou dost bestow on me, to propitiate Thy justice, which I have outraged, to make due atonement for my sins, to plead for myself, for holy Church, for all mankind, and for the souls of the just suffering in Purgatory. So, God, the Almighty Father, Creator of Heaven and Earth, Creator of the Universe, makes His decision about whether penance is necessary before admitting us into Heaven, not by looking into our hearts, nor by looking at the state of grace of our souls, but on whether or not we were wearing a little bit of plastic with BROWN ribbons on it or not.

Nobody is saying any such thing here. Did you watch and listen to Father Cooper? I see no harm in these rituals, but to substitute them for purity and grace seems to me but another form of simony. You are not a serious debater, Gabrielle, a fact to which I am giving a lot of thought right now. It states that through her special intercession, on the Saturday following their death, Mary will personally liberate and deliver the souls of devotees out of Purgatory.

The Vatican has denied the validity of this document since and forbade the Carmelites to preach the Sabbatine privilege, an admonition which they did not always adhere to.

In the Sabbatine Privilege was approved by the Congregation of Indulgences. Read the extract below, from the Catholic Encyclopaedia…. We reproduce here the whole passage dealing with the Sabbatine privilege, as it appears in the summary approved by the Congregation of Indulgences on 4 July, It is noteworthy that the Bull of John XXII, which was still mentioned in the previous summary approved on 1 December, , is no longer referred to cf.

Among the privileges, which are mentioned after the indulgences, the following occurs in the first place: It is permitted to the Carmelite Fathers to preach that the Christian people may piously believe in the help which the souls of brothers and members, who have departed this life in charity, have worn in life the scapular, have ever observed chastity, have recited the Little Hours [of the Blessed Virgin], or, if they cannot read, have observed the fast days of the Church, and have abstained from flesh meat on Wednesdays and Saturdays except when Christmas falls on such days , may derive after death — especially on Saturdays, the day consecrated by the Church to the Blessed Virgin — through the unceasing intercession of Mary, her pious petitions, her merits, and her special protection.

With this explanation and interpretation, the Sabbatine privilege no longer presents any difficulties, and Benedict XIV adds his desire that the faithful should rely on it Opera omnia, IX, Venice, , pp. Even apart from the Bull and the tradition or legend concerning the apparition and promise of the Mother of God the interpretation of the Decree cannot be contested. If my memory serves me correctly, you are one of our new atheists friends. The essential purpose of this blog is to enable us, traditional Catholics or sincere orthodox Catholics who are trying to live our faith in the midst of the worst crisis ever to afflict the Church, to learn more about our faith and to love it more.

It is not to debate with atheists, although we enjoyed that little interlude. When a topic of specific reference to either the existence of God, the soul or some science-related issue, you are welcome to join us but you are NOT welcome to come on here and mock the doctrines of our Catholic faith. Sometimes stupid needs to be outed. The essential purpose of this blog should be to ascertain what is true, not hide behind the veils of spurious dogma. Or do you want to simply accept only those comments that agree with your nice, cosy dogma?

That is quite different from questioning it. It is an arrogant soul, indeed, who questions what God has revealed. I do not believe you to be seriously interested in Catholicism. If you keep confirming that to me, expect to disappear. MCS dear, you reply post of Nov. Thank you for the clear reply however, I have 2 queries:.

Does the abstinence from meat on Wed. I would recommend this devotion. It is a liturgical prayer in honour of Our Lady. We have some cracking vegetarian recipes suitable for days of abstinence.

Cooper is a member of the SSPX. In my experience it is a practical guarantor of orthodoxy and orthopraxy. Sadly the priests of the SSPX are among the few who receive a sound seminary education these days. Your double standard is showing again. It is never my intention to offend. I stated a fact. If a fact offends, that is a pity but not my fault.

The question for debate is the existence of Purgatory. Several posters have professed their belief in this, Now, it is up to them to demonstrate, beyond reasonable doubt, that Purgatory does, indeed, exist. I would ask believers in Purgatory to convince me that it is more worthy of belief than the Cave of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, or the Invisible Palace of the Unicorns.

Please explain why this belief deserves more credence than the examples I quoted. The existence of Purgatory, as editor has pointed out, is a matter of supernatural faith, which you clearly do not have. It is implicitly upheld as a reality in the Sacred Scriptures, which you reject.

Evidently, this debate is over for you. Your ignorance of the Catholic Faith is quite astounding. Added on 6 January 2: Added on 6 January 1: Added on 6 January Added on 2 January Added on 1 January Added on 1 January 5: Added on 1 January 6: Added on 1 January 1: Added on 31 December 5: Added on 31 December 3: Added on 31 December 2: Added on 31 December 1: Added on 31 December 8: Added on 31 December 7: Added on 31 December Added on 30 December Added on 30 December 9: Added on 30 December 8: Added on 30 December 6: Added on 30 December 4: Added on 30 December 3: Added on 30 December 7: Added on 29 December Added on 29 December 8: Added on 29 December 5: Added on 29 December 4: Added on 29 December 3: Added on 29 December 2: Added on 29 December 9: Added on 29 December 6: Added on 28 December 4: Added on 26 December Added on 21 November 7: Added on 8 November 7: Added on 6 November Added on 5 November 2: Added on 3 November 7: Added on 2 November 4: Added on 2 November 2: Added on 1 November 5: Added on 31 October 7: Added on 31 October 6: Added on 31 October Added on 30 October 3: Added on 29 October 5: Added on 29 October Added on 29 October 6: Added on 29 October 1: Added on 28 October Added on 28 October 1: Added on 28 October 7: Added on 28 October 4: Added on 27 October Added on 27 October 9: Added on 27 October 7: Added on 26 October Added on 26 October 6: Added on 26 October 5: Added on 26 October 3: Added on 25 October Added on 25 October 9: Added on 25 October 8: Added on 25 October 5: Added on 25 October 3: Added on 24 October Added on 24 October 3: Added on 24 October 9: Added on 24 October 7: Added on 24 October 6: Added on 24 October 4: Added on 24 October 1: Added on 23 October Added on 23 October 9: Added on 23 October 8: Added on 23 October 7: Added on 23 October 6: Added on 23 October 5: Added on 23 October 4: Added on 23 October 3: Added on 23 October 2: Added on 23 October 1: Added on 22 October Added on 22 October 9: Added on 22 October 8: Added on 22 October 7: Added on 22 October 6: Added on 22 October 5: Added on 22 October 1: Added on 22 October 4: Added on 22 October 2: Added on 21 October Added on 21 October 8:

At this point you have you image looking like a photo printed on a cheap newspaper, but still the black thick borders typical of Lichtenstein are missing. To make them by hand is a boring job, but we have the Gimp making them for us. BTW, the procedure to make the borders it totally separated by the newspaper effect so, if you want, you can apply just this one to your images. Blur Radius 3 , method IIR. Algorithm Gradient , Amount 10 , Wrap.

Brightness 0 , Contrast Now we can take care of small details, like the reflections in the eyes, add captions and cartoon-like audio effects, etc. I explain you just how to recover the eye reflections, since they are not very easy. BTW, this is the only enhancement requiring you a direct intervention on the image: When a layer has a mask, the active part the layer or the mask is evidenced by a white border, and the other one has a black border.

To change the activity field between the layer and its mask you must click on the thumbnails. At this point there will be something, as usual, telling "Hey, that's no more a photography!

This is just a bunch of numbers corresponding to colored pixels, like every other digital image, even those "coming directly from the camera, wow! The difference between a film photography and a digital one is, IMHO, the same between a sailboat and a motoryacht.

Both stay in the water, require a coat of antifouling paint and crash on rocks Questo è un tentativo di convertire una foto digitale in qualcosa che somigli a un'opera di Roy Lichtenstein Per i pochi che non sanno chi fosse Roy Lichtenstein, ecco la solita pagina di Wikipedia , ed alcune opere si trovano con Google Images.

Tutto quanto è stato fatto usando le potenzialità native di Gimp , senza aggiungere alcunché. Se non avete il Gimp, scaricatevene una copia: Se volete provare con la vostra foto, ecco cosa ho fatto, passo per passo. Tra parentesi quadrate [] ci sono i riferimenti ai menu da selezionare, e troverete i valori usati da me.

Cambiateli pure per adattarli alla vostra immagine. Raggio di sfocatura 6 , metodo IIR. A questo punto avete la vostra immagine che sembra una foto stampata su un giornale di bassa qualità, ma mancano ancora i bordi spessi tipici di Lichtenstein.

A proposito, la procedura per fare i bordi è totalmente separata dall'effetto giornale quindi, se volete, potete applicare solo questa alle vostre immagini. Raggio di sfocatura 3 , metodo IIR. Luminosità 0 , Contrasto Ora possiamo prenderci cura dei piccoli dettagli, come i riflessi negli occhi, aggiungere fumetti ed effetti audio da cartoon, ecc. Vi spiego solo come recuperare i riflessi negli occhi, visto che non è molto semplice.

Tra parentesi, questo è l'unico miglioramento che richiede un intervento diretto sull'immagine: Quando un livello ha una maschera, la parte attiva il livello o la maschera è evidenziata da un bordino bianco, mentre l'altra parte lo ha nero. Per cambiare il campo di attività tra un livello e la sua maschera bisogna cliccare sulle iconcine. JPG [ File - Salva una copia Per più dettagli potente consultare il manuale ufficiale Gimp in italiano.

A questo punto ci sarà qualcuno che dice, come al solito, "Ehi, ma quella non è più una fotografia! Questo è solo un mucchio di numeri corrispondenti a pallini colorati, come qualsiasi altra immagine digitale, comprese quelle "come è uscita dalla macchina, wow! La differenza tra una fotografia su pellicola e una digitale è, secondo me, la stessa che c'è tra una barca a vela ed una a motore.

Entrambe stanno nell'acqua, hanno bisogno di una mano di antivegetativo e si schiantano sugli scogli Il Lago di Resia in tedesco Reschensee è un lago alpino artificiale situato in val Venosta a 1. Presso il passo di Resia si trovavano tre laghi naturali: L'idea di sfruttare questi tre laghi per la produzione di energia idroelettrica risale all'anno ; i lavori inizarono nel '39, ma per l'inizio della guerra, i lavori furono rallentati e poi sospesi nel ' Nel '46 nonostante la difficoltà economica del dopo guerra, e la mancanza di tutte le materie prime necessarie alla continuazione dell'opera, i lavori furono ripresi ed ultimati con l'inaugurazione il 28 agosto Ma il costo più elevato fu quello di dover radere al suolo completamente il centro abitato di Curon Venosta, e parzialmente quello di Resia, che vennero ricostruiti in posizioni più elevate.

La cima del vecchio campanile di Curon Graun emerge dalle acque ed è tuttora visibile. In inverno, quando il lago gela, il campanile è raggiungibile a piedi. Una leggenda racconta che in alcune giornate d'inverno si sentano ancora suonare le campane che invece furono rimosse dal campanile prima della creazione del lago. La chiesa di cui fa parte il campanile fu costruita verso la metà del ' Il 9 luglio sono stati conclusi dei lavori di restauro del campanile romanico; il livello dell'acqua del lago era stato precedentemente a maggio leggermente abbassato per permettere i lavori di risanamento sulla statica della struttura, ma anche sulle crepe che erano presenti negli angoli delle facciate nord e nord-est, causate con tutta probabilità delle infiltrazioni dell'acqua nelle piccole fessure e alle sue successive gelate invernali.

Non solo crepe e statica, ma anche il tetto è stato restaurato, dopo che l'ultimo intervento, come risulta dalla data impressa sulle tegole, risaliva al Les deux premières campagne de l'année , menées place du Havre et boulevard Montmartre, ayant connu un grand succès auprès de P Durand-Ruel, son marchand de tableau, C Pissarro s'installe au Grand hôtel du Louvre, de fin décembre à fin avril Plutôt connu comme représentant de "l'impressionnisme rural", C Pissarro n'en est pas moins le peintre de Rouen par le nombre et l'importance de ses oeuvres 69 huiles sur toile, 54 pour C Monet dont 32 pour la série des Cathédrales en Il va même, durant les dix dernières années de sa vie, se concentrer sur les vues urbaines de trois ports normands: Rouen 69 , Dieppe 30 et Le Havre 24 , soit environ peintures, se hissant en définitive au rang du plus urbain des peintres impressionnistes avec plus de tableaux, si l'on ajoute les 39 composés à Londres et surtout les à Paris C Durand-Ruel Snollaerts.

Segundo caballo chino con una flecha clavada en el vientre; Cueva de Lascaux, Montignac Dordoña , Francia. Ictino, Calícrates y Fidias: Agesandro, Polidoro y Atenodoro de Rodas: Friso del Ara Pacis: Primitiva basílica de San Pedro del Vaticano [en el listado aparecen tres puntos suspensivos]. Jamba izquierda de la portada central del Pórtico Real de la Catedral de Chartres: Figuras del Antiguo Testamento.

Jamba derecha de la portada central del Pórtico Real de la Catedral de Chartres: Jamba derecha de la puerta central de la portada principal de la Catedral de Reims: Escena de la Anunciación.

Escena de la Visitación. Palacio Pubblico, Siena [atribuido]. Iglesia de San Francisco, Arezzo Italia. Niños comiendo un pastel h. Constelación vertical con hueso amarillo ; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Sueño causado por el vuelo de una abeja alrededor de una granada un segundo antes del despertar ; Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid. Fue pintada en , por encargo del mecenas del surrealismo Edward James.

En esta institución ingresó en como donación de Mary y Leigh Block. Existe otra versión del pintor de este cuadro, completada en y que se pertenece a la colección de Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen de Róterdam.

Sus medidas son ,8 x ,4 cm. Canova en a décliné de nombreuses versions notamment en terre, mais aussi de très beaux groupes en marbre dont deux sont conservés au Louvre: Les personnages sont debout. Le groupe est posé sur un haut piédestal cylindrique orné de guirlandes de fleurs avec un papillon.

Cette sculpture est une commande faite au jeune sculpteur originaire de Possagno, Antonio Canova, alors âgé de seulement trente ans. Les deux groupes passèrent dans les collections impériales puis au musée Louvre.

Il avait été acquis par le tsar Alexandre 1er en avec les collections de Joséphine, la première épouse de Napoléon. Mais Canova trouve des solutions iconographiques simples.

Jeux de regards, attachement par les gestes, tout concourre à amener le spectateur à ne pas penser à chacune des figures individuellement mais à un seul ensemble: Paris, musée du Louvre, 20 octobre — 17 janvier Rome, Galerie Borghèse, octobre février , p. Myron Fass was a comic book artist who became a publisher that made Charlton look prestigious by comparison. Under the main umbrella of M. Enterprises and later Countrywide Publications, he was responsible for almost every bottom-of-the barrel publication to come out in the seventies.

If any pulp magazine was successful enough, his company would be responsible for the many imitations that would follow. If anybody was famous, he published a quickie magazine to cash in on their fame.

Most of what he produced were comics, but there was also a good amount of porno and devotion to his favorite hobby-guns. As a general rule comic book fans are very derisive about modern art. They feel that comic artists show greater talent then the fine artists of the last century.

Much of modern art is not predicated on realistic depictions. Comic fans, and many of the general public, feel the lack of realistic illustration characteristic of most modern art shows that it is nothing more then a trick played by the artists. Thus a big hoax has been perpetrated on the museums and art collectors of the world and only those who have not studied art history can see that the emperor has no clothes. The irony is that not only have these comic book fans failed to appreciate the goals of fine artists, they also seem ignorant of what comic artists are actually doing.

A realistic depiction is not the aim of comic artists either. Invariably these artists are concerned with telling a visual story and realism is often sacrificed toward that end. Probably no modern artist riles comic book fans more then Roy Lichtenstein. Lichtenstein became a famous Pop artist by transposing comic book art onto large painted canvases. There is a term fans use when one comic artist copies another, they call it swiping.

It is not an accident that to swipe was originally a slang expression for to steal. For comic fans it was bad enough that Lichtenstein was swiping from comic artists, what was even worse was his paintings sold for thousands of dollars while the original comic book artist generally struggled to make a living.

History adds insult to this story. Although it is frequently cited that Irv did superhero work for MLJ until , in fact, like many artists, Irv spent some time in the military.

During that time Irv befriended Roy Lichtenstein, getting him out of manual work and helping Roy get a job that used his artistic talents.

Of course no good deed goes unpunished, after the war Lichenstein became a highly paid pop artist by painting greatly enlarged copies of comic book art originally drawn by a variety of comic artists, including Irv Novick.

Even realistic artists depict their subject matter through their own personal filter. No matter how realistic an artist tries to be or how technically talented he is, the final painting will not truly match the source. In truth it is not how realistic a piece of art is that determines how good it is, more important is how well the artist brings forth his personal vision. Again and again the final painting deviates from the source. Some of it is editorial changes to improve the effect of the work.

After all a painting stands by itself while the original source is just one panel in a sequence of panels telling a story. Coloring would also be adjusted by Lichtenstein.

The line art was often adjusted by Roy. It would be nice to be able to say that Roy improved the line art, but in fact the final image often is inferior to the source. Lichtenstein could never have been successful as a real comic book artist.

Although I disagree with the criticism leveled by comic book fans at Roy Lichtenstein that does not mean that I approve of his work. I am not bothered by his copying comic book art but I do dislike his attitude towards his source. The Pop art world could enjoy the impact of the original comic book art but since it was presented as a fine art painting they could view it with a amused sense of superiority.

Fine art is supposed to provide more levels of meaning then that found in popular art. I have had very little respect for the fine arts copyist and even less for his foundation that is trying to protect his stolen images. They make you click on a copyright disclaimer almost like a porn site before you can view the stolen comic book art.

Here is the Joe Kubert dog they use as an image on their disclaimer. The only changes I see are due to poor draftsmanship on the part of Lichtenstein. The Comic Book Legal Defense Fund was founded in as a c 3 non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of First Amendment rights for members of the comics community.

Box , Northampton, MA I came across your Deconstructing Lichtenstein project on the Internet. I have been trying to track down the comic book source for Lichtenstein's painting, Mr. I have looked at lots of comics, but not 30,! Only a few were original. Call me stuffy, but I don't consider changing 1 or 2 little things - in some cases, just the colour of them - sufficiently significant alterations to consider something "original". Considering Lichtenstein paintings sell for millions of dollars, this statement from Jack Cowart of the Lichtenstein Foundation, is as annoying for its hubris as it is for calling the original artists "drawers".

We owe them esteem but can't pay them back for the royalties they might have received. Yeah this kind of sucks, it goes to show that most sold art is just about how you market it. I don;t actually see anything wrong with being influenced by other art, but I think he's crossed the line from influence to simply copy them. There is no exact copy.

If I compose a haystacks painting just like a Monet, and change the "scale, color, and treatment," I'm still copying Monet. Not an original idea there. Making a blonde a brunette or vice versa is not exactly changing "implications. If I take a Monet haystack and make it, say, an alien figure on an uncharted planet, keeping the composition but adding whimsy to it, then it's somewhat original, a little satire.

Having studied him in school, I actually had no idea they were copies. And they are copies, in my opinion. All that money just wouldn't be worth knowing I was just copying someone else's work.

It sounds like the disturbing thing is that no one thought these comic artists' work was cool until he copied it and made it a commodity, a fad. Today I had ten minutes to kill in a bookstore, and on the heels of the other day's post immediately below this one about Roberta Smith's breathless and somewhat thoughtless response to a Roy Lichtenstein show at Gagosian, I came across a Taschen book on Lichtenstein. I picked it up to review the treatment of sources.

Amid the prose and reproductions, I found one small thumbnail in black and white, of course, despite the color reproductions throughout of a source panel for Takka Takka, a painting from The comic source is substantially the same, with certain simplifications and adjustment of the text panel.

There is reference to the source panel in the essay, but there is no effort invested whatsoever in identifying where it appeared, who would have published it, or who the cartoonist was who produced it in the first place. It was as if the image had been dug up like a hunk of coal--a natural occurrence, not a cultural one.

It was identified as a "comic. Last year, I collaborated on an exhibition on the illustrator Al Parker which appeared at the Norman Rockwell Museum and also at the Kemper Museum on the campus of Washington University, where I teach.

In the latter venue, the Parker show was up at the same time as a show titled Beauty and the Blonde, which aspired to deconstruct the image of the blonde in American culture. It was curated by Catharina Manchanda, and provided the expected cheeky "critiques" courtesy of Mel Ramos, Tom Wesselman, Warhol, and more meaningfully gendered work by Cindy Sherman, Lorna Simpson, and others.

Of course Roy made an appearance, with Crying Girl, from All in all, it was satisfying show, if somewhat predictable. The point of the anecdote is this: Movie posters, calendar pin ups and other illustrated materials were used to set up and play off other works in the first room, particularly a Mel Ramos.

Ramos and the artists were credited. But the pin up illustrators, poster designers, illustrators and cartoonists who generated the abundance of material in the room were not. It almost certainly never occurred to anybody to look them up, because ideologically speaking they don't exist as cultural producers. They merely represent the convergence of mass forces on our hero of sensation, l'artiste.

For all the progressive noises made by high cultural actors of all sorts, it truly amazes me how dismissive the enterprise can be. We're all for "breaking down boundaries," between, you know, sculpture and painting. As a critic and producer, some time ago I consciously chose to reposition myself in the realm of visual culture defined broadly, and sidestep the simultaneously elaborate and narrow problems of art.

I'm happy to deal in artifacts and aesthetic. After I got back from the bookstore, I rooted around some online and discovered, to my deep astonishment, that an art historian named David Barsalou has tracked down more than original comic panels that Lichtenstein copied with slight modifications.

Barsalou's flickr page shows the originals with a small copy of Lichtenstein's image inset. The painting was produced in the same year. Bravo to Barsalou for pursuing this material. A proper accounting of cultural practice would engage Heath and the original comic in a discussion of sorts with Lichtenstein and the painting. The anonymity of the source in art historical contexts should no longer be countenanced; subsequent editions of American Art surveys which feature Lichtenstein's work should also include documentation of the source work when it is known.

Not just the drawings obviously! He didn't make a single one more interesting in any way, even by accident. That came off harsh. I should add the disclaimer that I am a cartoonist myself and the truth is that I can't look at Lichtenstein painting without cringing on the basis of the terrible lettering alone. Dan, it is somewhat difficult to respond to this corpus of material and attendant critical practice in a way that does not seem harsh or at the very least exasperated.

What is one to do in the face of such profound irony, or deep cunning? One shrugs it off, I guess, and secedes. The best lack all conviction I guess Lichtenstien's fame could not have existed if they things he was making were his own drawings, good or bad.

So then, are these critics continuing to celebrate contextual re-appropriation as a fresh idea? I want to know how long it took Barsalou to do that book. Someone should make an art book of Lichtenstiens with all the original work he stole from side by side with his.

It should be sold on Lichtenstein's name yet all the money should go to the original artists and estates of the original artists and none should go to Lichtenstein. It would just be logical in a karmic sense first and only time I'll ever write or say that.

And since no legal action was ever taken against Lichtenstein I assume this would get away for the same reasons if statute of limitations was not the reason. This would open up a whole can of worms that would destroy his unearned legacy.

I am currently writing a dissertation about Roy Lichtenstein and his work. So my question is are you the David Barsalou that did the Roy Lichtenstein project? If so could you please let me know? Any information you could provide me with would be of great use to my dissertation. Lichtenstein utilizza la retinatura tipica della stampa degli albi a fumetti esasperandola e crando un gigante effetto cartoon.

Nel suo complesso la Pop Art costituisce una sorta di fotografia dei rumori che identificano la comunicazione del periodo che va dagli anni sessanta agli anni ottanta. David Barsalou has spent the last 25 years of his life pouring through every illustration in over 50, comic books in order to find the original sources of Roy Lichtenstein's iconic pop-art images! Not sure how people find the time to do this type of thing, but God bless 'em, I say.

Take a look at his gallery and Flickr feed to see the results of his investigation. Ciao from Perugia, Italy. I was in Florence over the weekend and started musing about art.

How could one not? That Botticelli really knew his way around a paint brush, didn't he? I was told that all I was doing was ripping off Roy Lichtenstein and that his estate ought to sue me for every penny I was worth. That was definitely worth a giggle.

I don't know how many times I've been accused of ripping him off or duplicating his work or what have you. I alternate between laughing and being irritated. Not to be a geek, but it really shows a lack of knowledge of the history of comic books. A lot of people seem to think that Lichtenstein invented non-super hero comic characters, or at least the crying girl motif.

Nothing could be further from the truth. Romance comics were invented by Joe Simon and Jack "King" Kirby around in a successful attempt to expand the marketing of comics to young girls.

Romance comics were around many years before before Lichtenstein started copying them. I don't use the word copying lightly, either. He literally would copy them, and some argue forcefully quite poorly.

There's an entire website called Deconstructing Lichtenstein that is dedicated to finding the "real" artists behind the images made famous by Lichtenstein. In particular, they bristle at the idea that the Roy Lichtenstein foundation would have the nerve to sue anybody over the use of the images found in his paintings. To be fair, Lichtenstein never denied copying these images. The problem is that many people who adore his work just don't know this and go around accusing artists like me of duplicating his work.

And then there's the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation, whose only real purpose is to sue people for the use of intellectual property that probably violated someone else's intellectual property rights. Again, not to be a geek though I kind of am , but I have been reading comics since I was a little kid and I have been doodling for about as long.

When I like to think about my influences, I don't like to think of Lichtenstein. I like to think about John Romita Sr. People also assume that my favorite artists are also Warhol or Lichtenstein, or God-forbid Damien Hirst. Have you seen a Caravaggio up close? So the next time you're in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and come across the wall with Lichtenstein's Drowning Girl, just know that the image was actually conceived by Tony Abruzzo and his estate ain't collecting diddly.

Para que os enteréis un poco de qué va la cosa os dejo la traducción que he hecho al español para mis lectores no angloparlantes del reportaje de Lifelounge al respecto:. Hasta ahora ha encontrado alrededor de ilustraciones que Lichtenstein reprodujo y vendió por millones de dólares.

A pesar de las tesis de Barsalou, los paneles fueron cambiados en color, tratamiento e interpretación. Todo el periodo del Pop Art plantea una cuestión acerca del copyright vs arte. Pero, de nuevo, fue la visión de Lichtenstein la que se fijó en un pequeño detalle en un libro de cómics aleatorio y eligió aislarla, trabajarla y aumentarla para darle un completo nuevo significado.

De cualquier forma, es un argumento interesante. Sigo pensando que el trabajo de Lichtenstein es asombroso pero cada uno tiene que ser su propio juez. Esto es lo que yo llamaría lisa y llanamente, un plagio.

La virtud o el "arte" de Lichenstein, al menos por lo que deduzco de tu post, es haber sido el suertudo que estuvo en el lugar idóneo, en el momento adecuado, y ser a quien por arte de birlibirloque lo colocan en el podium.

Hablar de Lichenstein por aquí sería demasiado largo, pero así tenemos una conversación pendiente para cuando nos volvamos a ver. Gracias por los comentarios Non so quali siano i significati nuovi che si affollano nella vostra mente ma, per controllare che la decostruzione sia avvenuta, chiedetevi se ora sareste disposti a pagare quei quattro-cinque milioni di dollari necessari per acquistare un quadro di Roy Lichtenstein.

These articles, websites and videos have been created to help you find information on forty-five artists active during the 20th and 21st centuries.

Although the artists have been grouped into specific art movements or categories Pop Art, Brit Art , many of these artists were not part of a specific artistic movement. Their artwork may include multiple conventions and stylistic characteristics of more than one movement.

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein - The original comic book source images of the artist. It's always good to have your site as a reference when Lichtenstein's name crops up. It's how they justify their paychecks. Their job is to flatter the exhibition subject.

Facts merely get in the way of their purple prose. You're fighting the good fight against the uninterested hordes. I had a feeling that the writer had to put it in such a way as to not insult Lichtenstein's work while putting your interest into a comfortable little box.

As far as I can see he's not the next picasso, pollock, Lichtenstein he fucking copied comics with some variations at a large size a people love him like wth?!?!?!?!? Flickr gallery identifies and acknowledges the original comic book artists whose work Lichtenstein based his paintings on, something the famed pop artist never did himself.

Warhol deliberately raised questions about originality in art, and the correlation between originality and artistic value. Both artists have vast estates, lasting critical legacies, despite making no attempt to hide how unoriginal their work was. Meta-comedy at its finest and most lucrative. In deconstructing the sister notions of origin and originality, postmodernism establishes a schism between itself and the conceptual domain of the avant-garde, looking back at it from across a gulf that in turn establishes a historical divide.

The historical period that the avant-garde shared with modernism is over. Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu , was a 15th-century Albanian lord. In , he initiated and organized the League of Lezhë, which proclaimed him Chief of the League of the Albanian people, and defended the region of Albania against the Ottoman Empire for more than two decades.

Skanderbeg is Albania's most important national hero and a key figure of the Albanian National Awakening.

Skanderbeg was born in [G] to the noble Kastrioti family, in a village in Dibra. Sultan Murad II took him hostage in and he fought for the Ottoman Empire during next twenty years.

In , he organized local leaders into the League of Lezhë, a federation aimed at uniting their forces for war against the Ottomans. Skanderbeg's first victory against the Ottomans, at the Battle of Torvioll in the same year marked the beginning of more than 20 years of war with the Ottomans.

Skanderbeg's forces achieved more than 20 victories in the field and withstood three sieges of his capital, Krujë. In he recognized de jure the suzerainty of Kingdom of Naples through the Treaty of Gaeta, to ensure a protective alliance, although he remained an independent ruler de facto. In , he became the chief commander of the crusading forces of Pope Pius II, but the Pope died while the armies were still gathering. Left alone to fight the Ottomans, Skanderbeg did so until he died in January Marin Barleti, an early 16th century Albanian historian, wrote a biography of Skanderbeg, which was printed between and The work, written in Latin and in a Renaissance and panegyric style, was translated into all the major languages of Western Europe from the 16th through the 18th centuries.

Gjergj is the Albanian equivalent of the name George. The form of his last name was given variously as Kastrioti,[3] Castriota,[4] Castriottis,[5] or Castriot. The Ottoman Turks gave him the name Iskender bey, meaning "Lord Alexander", or "Leader Alexander", which has been rendered as Scanderbeg or Skanderbeg in the English versions of his biographies, and Skënderbeu or Skënderbej is the Albanian version.

George Kastrioti was born in [G] in one of the two villages owned by his grandfather Pal Kastrioti. There was a total of nine children, of whom George was the youngest son, his older brothers were Stanisha, Reposh and Kostandin, and his sisters were Mara, Jelena, Angjelina, Vlajka and Mamica. Gjon Kastrioti had been a vassal of the Sultan since the end of 14th century, and, as a consequence, paid tribute and provided military services to the Ottomans like in the Battle of Ankara [18].

In he sent his eldest son, Stanisha, to be the Sultan's hostage. The earliest existing record of George's name is the First Act of Hilandar from , when Gjon Kastrioti and his four sons donated the right to the proceeds from taxes collected from the two villages to the Monastery of Hilandar.

In , Gjon Kastrioti was defeated in a battle by the Ottoman governor of Skopje, Isa bey Evrenos and as a result, his territorial possessions were extremely reduced. It was because of Skanderbeg's display of military merit in several Ottoman campaigns, that Murad II r. At that time, Skanderbeg was leading a cavalry unit of 5, men. After his brother Reposh's death on 25 July [30] and the later deaths of Kostandin and Skanderbeg's father who died in , Skanderbeg and his surviving brother Stanisha maintained the relations that their father had with the Republic of Ragusa and the Republic of Venice.

In and , they managed to have the same privileges that their father had with those states. Albania uses a similar flag and symbol to this day. On March 2, , Skanderbeg managed to bring together all the Albanian princes in the city of Lezhë and form the League of Lezhë. During the first 8—10 years, Skanderbeg commanded an army of generally 10,, soldiers,[45] but only had absolute control over the men from his own dominions, and had to convince the other princes to follow his policies and tactics.

In the summer of , in the Plain of Torvioll, the united Albanian armies under Skanderbeg faced the Ottomans who were under direct command of the Turkish general Ali Pasha, with an army of 25, men. At a given signal they descended, encircled the Ottomans and gave Skanderbeg a much needed victory. About 8, Ottomans were killed and 2, were captured. In the following two years, Skanderbeg defeated the Ottomans two more times, on October 10, , when Ottoman forces from Ohrid suffered severe losses,[47] and again in the Battle of Otonetë on September 27, At the beginning of the Albanian insurrection, the Republic of Venice was supportive of Skanderbeg, considering his forces to be a buffer between them and the Ottoman Empire.

Lezhë, where the eponymous league was established, was Venetian territory, and the assembly met with the approval of Venice. The later affirmation of Skanderbeg and his rise as a strong force on their borders, however, was seen as a menace to the interests of the Republic, leading to a worsening of relations and the dispute over the fortress of Dagnum which triggered the Albanian-Venetian War of — The Venetians sought by every means to overthrow Skanderbeg or bring about his death, even offering a life pension of golden ducats annually for the person who would kill him.

The Albanian garrison in the castle resisted the frontal assaults of the Ottoman army, while Skanderbeg harassed the besieging forces with the remaining Albanian army under his personal command. In late summer , due to a lack of potable water,[B] the Albanian garrison eventually surrendered the castle with the condition of safe passage through the Ottoman besieging forces, a condition which was accepted and respected by Sultan Murad II.

This forced the Venetians to offer a peace treaty to Skanderbeg. The peace treaty, signed between Skanderbeg and Venice on 4 October , envisioned that Venice would keep Dagnum and its environs, but would cede to Skanderbeg the territory of Buzëgjarpri at the mouth of the river Drin, and also that Skanderbeg would enjoy the privilege of buying, tax-free, horse-loads of salt annually from Durazzo.

In addition Venice would pay Skanderbeg 1, ducats. During the period of clashes with Venice, Skanderbeg intensified relations with Alfonso V of Aragon r. The Albanian army under Skanderbeg did not participate in this battle as he was prevented from linking with the Hunyadi's army by the Ottomans and their allies. He appears to have marched to join Hunyadi immediately after making peace with the Venetians, and to have been only 20 miles from Kosovo Polje when the Hungarian army finally broke.

In , Alfonso V suffered a rebellion caused by certain barons in the rural areas of his Kingdom of Naples. He needed reliable troops to deal with the uprising, so he called upon Skanderbeg for assistance. Skanderbeg responded to Alfonso's request for aid by sending to Italy a detachment of Albanian troops commanded by General Demetrios Reres. These Albanians were successful in quickly suppressing the rebellion. Many of these troops settled there. One year later, in , another detachment of Albanian troops was sent to garrison Sicily against a rebellion and invasion.

In June , two years after the Ottomans had captured Svetigrad, they laid siege to Krujë with an army numbering approximately , men and led again by Sultan Murad II himself and his son, Mehmed.

The garrison repelled three major direct assaults on the city walls by the Ottomans, causing great losses to the besieging forces.

Ottoman attempts at finding and cutting the water sources failed, as did a sapped tunnel, which collapsed suddenly. An offer of , aspra Turkish silver coins and a promise of a high rank as an officer in the Ottoman army made to Vrana Konti, were both rejected by him. Murad II acknowledged that he could not capture the castle of Krujë by force of arms, and in October , he lifted the siege and made his way to Edirne, leaving behind several thousand dead soldiers. Although Skanderbeg had achieved success at resisting Murad II himself, harvests were unproductive and famine was widespread.

Following Skanderbeg's requests, King Alfonso V helped him in this situation and the two parties signed the Treaty of Gaeta on March 26, , according to which, Skanderbeg would be formally a vassal of Alfonso in exchange for military aid. A month after the treaty, on 21 April in an Eastern Orthodox Ardenica Monastery,[71][72] Skanderbeg married Donika Kastrioti, daughter of Gjergj Arianiti, one of the most influential Albanian noblemen, strengthening the ties between them.

During the five years which followed the First Siege of Krujë, Albania was allowed some respite as the new sultan set out to conquer the last vestiges of the Byzantine Empire, but a battle did take place in when another Ottoman army sent to Albania was defeated again by Skanderbeg's forces.

During this period, skirmishes between Skanderbeg and the Dukagjin family, which had been dragging on for years, were put to an end by a reconciliatory intervention of the Pope, and in , a peace treaty between them was finally reached. In the beginning of , Skanderbeg and the Venetians[78] informed King Alfonso and the Pope about a possible Ottoman invasion and asked for help. The Pope sent 3, ducats while Alfonso sent infantry and a certain amount of money,[79] along with a message directed to Skanderbeg.

Frequently they delayed their tributes to Skanderbeg and this was long a matter of dispute between the parties, with Skanderbeg threatening war on Venice at least three times during the — period, and Venice conceding in a conciliatory tone.

The Siege of Berat was the first real test between the armies of the new sultan and Skanderbeg. That siege would end up in a defeat for the League of Lezhë forces. The defeat of Berat somewhat affected the attitude of other Albanian noblemen. One of them, Moisi Arianit Golemi, defected to the Turks and returned to Albania in as a commander of a Turkish army of 15, men, but he was defeated by Skanderbeg in Battle of Oranik. In , one of Skanderbeg's nephews the son of his sister Jelena , Gjergj Stress Balsha, sold the fortress of Modric to the Ottomans for 30, silver ducats.

He tried to cover up the act; however, his treason was discovered and he was sent to prison in Naples. In the beginning of , another nobleman, Hamza Kastrioti, Skanderbeg's own nephew and his closest collaborator, defected to the Turks when he lost his hope of succession after the birth of Skanderbeg's son Gjon Kastriot II. In the summer of , an Ottoman army numbering approximately 70, men[88] invaded Albania with the hope of destroying Albanian resistance once and for all. This army was led by Isak-Beg, the only commander to have ever defeated Skanderbeg's forces, and by Hamza Kastrioti, the commander who knew all about Albanian tactics and strategy.

After wreaking much damage to the countryside,[88] the Ottoman army set up camp at the Ujebardha field literally translated as "White Water" , halfway between Lezhë and Krujë. After having avoided the enemy for months, calmly giving to the Turks and his European neighbours the impression that he was defeated, on 2 September Skanderbeg attacked the Ottomans in their encampments and defeated them.

Hamza was captured[90] and sent to detention in Naples. The reason was that during this time, Skanderbeg's military undertakings involved considerable expense which the contribution of Alfonso V of Aragon was not sufficient to defray. Being himself in financial difficulties, the Pope could do no more than send Skanderbeg a single galley and a modest sum of money, promising more ships and larger amounts of money in the future.

The Ragusans even entered into negotiations with Mehmed. As the captain of the Curia, Skanderbeg appointed the duke of Leukas Santa Maura , Leonardo III Tocco, formerly the prince of Arta and "despot of the Rhomaeans", a figure virtually unknown except in Southern Epirus, as a lieutenant in his native land. Marinesco, the death of King Alfonso marked the end of the Aragonese dream of a Mediterranean Empire and also the hope for a new crusade in which Skanderbeg was assigned a leading role.

In Skanderbeg captured fortress of Sati from Ottoman Empire and ceded it to Venice in order to secure cordial relationship with Signoria. In , King Ferdinand had serious problems with another uprising of the Angevins and asked for help from Skanderbeg. After securing the Neapolitan kingdom, a crucial ally in his struggle, Skanderbeg returned home after being informed of Ottoman movements within the borders of the League of Lezhë. There were three Ottoman armies approaching: He pointed out that Skanderbeg would be ready to go back to war should the Pope ask for it.

Meanwhile, the position of Venice toward Skanderbeg had changed perceptibly because the Republic had entered in their first war with the Turks — During this period the Republic saw Skanderbeg as an invaluable ally, and on 20 August , the peace treaty of was renewed and this time other conditions were added: Pius II invited all the Christian nobility to join, and the Venetians immediately answered the appeal.

Pius II's planned crusade envisioned assembling 20, soldiers in Taranto, while another 20, would be gathered by Skanderbeg. They would have been summoned in Durazzo under Skanderbeg's leadership and would have formed the central front against the Ottomans. However, Pius II died in August , at the crucial moment when the crusading armies were gathering and preparing to march in Ancona, and Skanderbeg was again left alone facing the Ottomans.

Later that same year, two other Ottoman armies appeared on the borders. The commander of one of the Ottoman armies was Ballaban Pasha, who, together with Jakup Bey, the commander of the second army, planned a double-flank envelopment.

Skanderbeg, however, attacked Ballaban's forces at the Second Battle of Vajkal, where the Turks were defeated. This time, all the Turkish prisoners were slain in an act of revenge for the previous execution of Albanian captains. In , Sultan Mehmed II personally led an army of 30, into Albania and laid the Second Siege of Krujë, as his father had attempted 16 years earlier. Subsequently, he left the siege to return to Istanbul. Durazzo would be the next target of the sultan in order to be used as a strong base opposite the Italian coast.

Skanderbeg spent the following winter of — in Italy, of which several weeks were spent in Rome trying to persuade Pope Paul II to give him money. At one point, he was unable to pay for his hotel bill, and he commented bitterly that he should be fighting against the Church rather than the Turks.

The court of Naples, whose policy in the Balkans hinged on Skanderbeg's resistance, was more generous with money, armaments and supplies. However, it is probably better to say that Skanderbeg financed and equipped his troops largely from local resources, richly supplemented by Turkish booty.

It is possible that the Curia only provided to Skanderbeg 20, ducats in all, which could have paid the wages of 20 men over the whole period of conflict. However, on his return he allied with Lekë Dukagjini, and together on April 19, , they first attacked and defeated, in the Krrabë region, the Turkish reinforcements commanded by Yonuz, Ballaban's brother. Yonuz himself and his son, Haydar were taken prisoner.

The destruction of Ballaban Pasha's army and the siege of Elbasan forced Mehmed II to march against Skanderbeg again in the summer of The Ottomans failed again, in their third Siege of Krujë, to take the city and subjugate the country, but the degree of destruction was immense. During the Ottoman incursions, the Albanians suffered a great number of casualties, especially to the civilian population, while the economy of the country was in ruins. The above problems, the loss of many Albanian noblemen, and the new alliance with Lekë Dukagjini, caused Skanderbeg to call together in January all the remaining Albanian noblemen to a conference in the Venetian stronghold of Lezhë to discuss the new war strategy and to restructure what remained from the League of Lezhë.

After Skanderbeg's death, Venice asked and obtained from his widow the permission to defend Krujë and the other fortresses with Venetian garrisons.

Meanwhile, King Ferdinand of Naples' gratitude toward Skanderbeg for the help given during this Italian campaign continued even after Skanderbeg's death. In a letter dated to 24 February , King Ferdinand expressively stated that "Skanderbeg was like a father to us" and "We regret this Skanderbeg's death not less than the death of King Alfonso", offering protection for Skanderbeg's widow and his son.

It is relevant to the fact that the majority of Albanian leaders after the death of Skanderbeg found refuge in the Kingdom of Naples and this was also the case for the common people trying to escape from the Ottomans, who formed Arbëresh colonies in that area. On April 25, , the Ottoman forces captured the Venetian-controlled Shkodër, which had been besieged since May 14, The Albanian resistance to the Ottoman invasion continued after Skanderbeg's death by his son, Gjon Kastrioti II, who tried to liberate Albanian territories from Ottoman rule in — They are part of the Italian nobility and members of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta with the highest rank of nobility.

Through the famale lines his descendants include the ruling or former ruling families of Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria-Hungary, Prussia, Serbia, and some members of the British royal family.

Other prominent modern descendants include Filippo Castriota, collaborator of Ismail Qemali, founder of modern Albania and author Giorgio Maria Castriota. Skanderbeg's struggle against the Ottomans became highly significant to the Albanian people. It strengthened their solidarity, made them more conscious of their identity, and was a source of inspiration in their struggle for national unity, freedom, and independence. Probably one of the most important legacies of Skanderbeg lies with his military mastery.

The trouble that he caused to the Ottoman Empire military forces was such that when the Ottomans found the grave of Skanderbeg in Saint Nicholas, a church in Lezhë, they opened it and made amulets of his bones, believing that these would confer bravery on the wearer. Among stories told about him was that he never slept more than five hours at night and could cut two men asunder with a single stroke of his scimitar, cut through iron helmets, kill a wild boar with a single stroke, and cleave the head off a buffalo with another.

Skanderbeg is also remembered as a statesman. During his reign as part of his internal policy programs, Skanderbeg issued many edicts, such as those on carrying out a census of the population and on tax collection, based on Roman and Byzantine law.

There are two known works of literature written about Skanderbeg which were produced in 15th century. The first was written at the beginning of by Serbian writer Martin Segon who was the Catholic Bishop of Ulcinj and one of the most notable 15th-century humanists. Un umanista serbo-dalmata del tardo Quattrocento is short but very important biographical sketch on Skanderbeg Italian: Skanderbeg gathered quite a posthumous reputation in Western Europe.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, most of the Balkans were under the suzerainty of the Ottomans who were at the gates of Vienna in and narrative of the heroic Christian's resistance to the "Moslem hordes" captivated readers' attention in the West. One of the earliest was the Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi, Epirotarum Principis Rome, , published a mere four decades after Skanderbeg's death.

This History of the life and deeds of Scanderbeg, Prince of the Epirotes was written by the Albanian historian Marinus Barletius Scodrensis, known in Albanian as Marin Barleti, who, after experiencing the Ottoman capture of his native Shkodër firsthand, settled in Padua where he became rector of the parish church of St. Barleti dedicated his work to Don Ferrante Kastrioti, Skanderbeg's grandchild, and to posterity.

The book was first published in Latin. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Barleti's book was translated into a number of foreign language versions. All these books, written in the panegyric style that would often characterize medieval historians who regarded history mostly as a branch of rhetoric, inspired a wide range of literary and art works.

Franciscus Blancus, a Catholic bishop born in Albania, also wrote Kastrioti's biography. The Italian baroque composer Antonio Vivaldi composed an opera entitled Scanderbeg first performed , libretto written by Antonio Salvi. Skanderbeg is the protagonist of three 18th-century British tragedies: The French 16th-century poet Ronsard wrote a poem about him, as did the 19th-century American poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

According to Biemmi, the work had lost pages dealing with Skanderbeg's youth, the events from —, the Siege of Krujë , and Skanderbeg's death. Biemmi referred to the author of the work as Antivarino, meaning the man from Bar.

Noli and Athanase Gegaj had not discovered and used his forgery as source in their works. The Great Warrior Skanderbeg Albanian: Skanderbeg's memory has been engraved in many museums, such as the Skanderbeg Museum next to Krujë Castle. A palace in Rome in which Skanderbeg resided during his —67 visits to the Vatican is still called Palazzo Skanderbeg and currently houses the Italian museum of pasta: Also in Rome, a statue is dedicated to the Albanian hero in Piazza Albania. Monuments or statues of Skanderbeg have also been erected in the cities of Skopje and Debar, in the Republic of Macedonia; Pristina, in Kosovo; Geneva, in Switzerland; Brussels, in Belgium; and other settlements in southern Italy where there is an Arbëreshë community.

In , a statue of Skanderbeg was unveiled on the grounds of St. It is the first statue of Skanderbeg to erected in the United States. Due scatti della scultura di Francesco Ciusa che per me rappresenta il massimo capolavoro della scultura Sarda di tutti i tempi.

Nelle due immagini, l'originale in gesso custodito nella Galleria Comunale d'Arte di Cagliari. Esistono altre cinque versioni in bronzo dell'opera, ma vederne dal vivo l'originale è sempre una grande emozione Il Brano di Maria Carta in realtà narra la disperazione di una madre per un figlio entrato nel tunnel della droga, ma credo si accompagni bene all'immagine di una madre il cui figlio è stato ucciso A mio figlio il cuore.

A figlio mio, il cuore. Ci sono quei giorni in cui hai pianificato ogni dettaglio, o almeno lo pensi. Decayer o meno, è una mia prassi. Quei giorni in cui ti senti gasato niente flatulenze all'idea di riuscire a vedere finalmente posti bramati per lungo, troppo tempo; di ri vedere un amico che non vedevi da lungo, troppo tempo. Quel giorno comincia come programmato, portantoti nel punto di partenza all'orario stabilito. E con una coincidenza fortuita subito dopo, spostandoti guardacaso nei pressi di un altro "posto" avvolto da un mistero da sempre insoluto.

Già che ci siamo, indaghiamo. Poi qualcosa comincia ad andare storto. Il cancello subito dietro l'angolo, il lucchetto, le case -pur non essendovi stato in quel momento nessuno- che hanno tutta l'aria appartenere a quella specifica categoria di chi non si sa proprio fare i cazzi propri.

E via al primo "sito". Eh, eppure il caso "zero" di poco prima sembrava aver gettato un'ombra.. Si, perchè da remoto sembra sempre tutto oro che cola, ma è poi sul campo che si decide , il trial dell'urbex, dentro o fuori, decisioni rapide. Da dove spuntano fuori questi qui? Te la sei fatta la casa, eh? Giusto da ritinteggiare, ma in fondo chissenefrega. E niente, neanche la fatica di aver fatto manovra tra il cassonetto e quell'accidenti di monovolume nonricordochecosa.

Io davo solo indicazioni sulle distanze, ma vuoi mettere l'impegno sprecato? E via al secondo "sito". Parcheggi dove sai, scendi. Fai il giro, e Poi lo vedi, il trampolino, per gentile concessione di Boh, ma grazie lo stesso. Come si suol dire: Com'è il termine opposto a conflitto di interessi..? E via al terzo "sito". Il morale è buono, ma i dubbi ci sono. Se ne era già parlato ed oscuri eserciti di cementificatori si erano già messi all'opera da tempo Vabbè, in qualche modo lo si aggira e si va per la stradina.

E il ciclista quasi ti mette sotto. Ok per la mobilità sostenibile, ma l'antropizzazione mi è in certi casi indigesta. E infatti reti, reti, recinti, ancora reti. Stavolta neanche il tempo di arrivare, neanche il tempo di parcheggiare.

Ok, siamo al mare, ma è fine settembre e ci si aspetta qualcosa che si chiama No, sembra invece la maratona di New York. Solo di gente a spasso alla minchia di cane, non per jogging salutare. Added on 13 January 7: Added on 13 January 5: Added on 13 January 3: Added on 13 January 2: Added on 8 January 4: Added on 8 January 9: Added on 6 January 2: Added on 6 January 1: Added on 6 January Added on 2 January Added on 1 January Added on 1 January 5: Added on 1 January 6: Added on 1 January 1: Added on 31 December 5: Added on 31 December 3: Added on 31 December 2: Added on 31 December 1: Added on 31 December 8: Added on 31 December 7: Added on 31 December Added on 30 December Added on 30 December 9: Added on 30 December 8: Added on 30 December 6: Added on 30 December 4: Added on 30 December 3: Added on 30 December 7: Added on 29 December Added on 29 December 8: Added on 29 December 5: Added on 29 December 4: Added on 29 December 3: Added on 29 December 2: Added on 29 December 9: Added on 29 December 6: Added on 28 December 4: Added on 26 December Added on 21 November 7: Added on 8 November 7: Added on 6 November Added on 5 November 2: Added on 3 November 7: Added on 2 November 4: Added on 2 November 2: Added on 1 November 5: Added on 31 October 7: Added on 31 October 6: Added on 31 October Added on 30 October 3: Added on 29 October 5: Added on 29 October Added on 29 October 6: Added on 29 October 1: Added on 28 October Added on 28 October 1: Added on 28 October 7: Added on 28 October 4: Added on 27 October Added on 27 October 9: Added on 27 October 7: Added on 26 October Added on 26 October 6: Added on 26 October 5: Added on 26 October 3: Added on 25 October Added on 25 October 9: Added on 25 October 8: Added on 25 October 5: Added on 25 October 3: Added on 24 October Added on 24 October 3: Added on 24 October 9: Added on 24 October 7: Added on 24 October 6: Added on 24 October 4: Added on 24 October 1: Added on 23 October Added on 23 October 9: Added on 23 October 8: Added on 23 October 7: Added on 23 October 6: Added on 23 October 5: Added on 23 October 4: Added on 23 October 3: Added on 23 October 2: Added on 23 October 1: Added on 22 October Added on 22 October 9: Added on 22 October 8: Added on 22 October 7: Added on 22 October 6: Added on 22 October 5: Added on 22 October 1: Added on 22 October 4: Added on 22 October 2: Added on 21 October Added on 21 October 8: Added on 21 October 6: Added on 21 October 5: Added on 21 October 3: Added on 21 October 2: Added on 21 October 1: Added on 21 October 7: Added on 20 October Added on 20 October 8: Added on 20 October 7: Added on 20 October 5: Added on 20 October 4: Added on 20 October 3: Added on 20 October 2: Added on 20 October 1: Added on 19 October Added on 19 October 9: Added on 19 October 7: Added on 19 October 6: Added on 19 October 4: Added on 19 October 3: Added on 19 October 2: Added on 19 October 8: Added on 19 October 5: Added on 18 October Added on 18 October 9: Added on 18 October 8: Added on 18 October 7: Added on 18 October 6: Added on 18 October 5: Added on 18 October 4: Added on 18 October 3: Added on 18 October 1: Added on 18 October 2: Added on 17 October Added on 17 October 9: Added on 17 October 7: Added on 17 October 6: Added on 17 October 5: Added on 17 October 2: Added on 17 October 1:

Se- gairo iordine de V. Se rencontre exceptionnellement dans ki Loire. Il confirme ce qu'il a mandé la veine au duc de IGlan, touchant h mission de Tévèque de Turin, qui se propose de partir pour Vigevano le lendemain du jour de Pâques. Et dans le memo ordre d'idees eilons encore les travaux de MM. C'est le Derne Bayard,